Ubiquinone

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Coenzyme Q10: The Different Forms and Heart Health (Part 2: Ubiquinol vs. Ubiquinone)

If you have been looking into supplementing with coenzyme Q10, you may have run into the types aubiquinola and aubiquinonea. Both types are very important nutrients to the human body. Understanding the differences in the two can help you be sure that you are maximizing the benefits you receive from supplementing with CoQ10. CoQ10 is needed to help the organs with the highest energy requirements repair and protect themselves. As mentioned in Part 1 of this series, ubiquinol levels are greatly reduced in cancer and heart disease patients. Levels are also low in patients with neurological and liver conditions. It is believed that low levels of CoQ10 put the body at higher risk for these conditions and supplementing can help you protect yourself. Ubiquinone is the most widely recognized form of CoQ10. It is a powerful antioxidant produced naturally in the body. It plays a key role in cellular energy production. The body converts ubiquinone into ubiquinol. This conversion is necessary for cellular use. The body combines fats and carbohydrates with oxygen inside the cells to produce energy. Ubiquinol, being fat-soluble, passes freely into and out of the cell. It cleans out free radicals and quickly transports the signal to produce energy from the cellular mitochondria. So, the body needs ubiquinone to convert into the usable form, ubiquinol. The human body begins to lose ubiquinone in its early twenties. Conversion of ubiquinone into ubiquinol becomes inhibited with age and sharply diminishes after age 40. Without enough ubiquinone and/or ubiquinol, the body becomes susceptible to age related fatigue and does not have the cellular energy to defend against oxidative stress. It also loses its ability to create collagen and elastin without enough CoQ10. These are substances necessary for cellular repair. Ubiquinone has been available for about thirty years. It is the most recognizable form of CoQ10 because ubiquinol has only been available in supplement form since 2006. Both are equally important, but ubiquinol oxidizes rapidly outside of the body. Therefore, it took many years of research before it was available in supplement form. Ask your doctor if CoQ10 supplementation is right for you. In general, ubiquinone supplementation may be necessary after age 20, while <a rel=”nofollow” onclick=”javascript:_gaq.push([‘_trackPageview’, ‘/outgoing/article_exit_link/1032678′]);” href=”http://nutri.com/index.cfm/product/35_2/coenzyme-q10-ubiquinol.cfm”title=”Ubiquinol”>ubiquinol</a> may not be necessary until after age 40 when the ability to convert ubiquinone diminishes. Staying healthy and combating oxidative stress is not always possible without the use of vitamins and supplements. Remember from Part 1 of this series, that CoQ10 is most efficient when combined with vitamin C. Vitamin C promotes the production of CoQ10 in the body. Unfortunately for us, human beings do not produce vitamin C and it is necessary for us to get it from food sources and supplementation. <a rel=”nofollow” onclick=”javascript:_gaq.push([‘_trackPageview’, ‘/outgoing/article_exit_link/1032678′]);” href=”http://www.nutri.com”title=”Vitamin C Powder”>Vitamin C powder</a> is the easiest way to get enough vitamin C to be beneficial. With the right combination of vitamin C, CoQ10 ubiquinol and ubiquinone, you can possibly prevent and repair damage to organs, ward off disease and increase your energy. Be proactive about your health and remember to talk to your doctor about supplementation before you begin any new regimen.

About the author: Phil Le Breton is owner at Wholesale Nutrition. He has a strong interest in helping people achieve greater brain and body health. For more information about C-Salts, otherwise known as the best Vitamin C, or about other Vitamin C powder products, visit http://www.nutri.com where you can buy Vitamins and Supplements of the highest quality.

Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/nutrition-articles/coenzyme-q10-the-different-forms-and-heart-health-part-2-ubiquinol-vs-ubiquinone-1032678.html


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53 Responses to Ubiquinone

  1. Bleeble Blabble says:

    Locations in the Cell?
    a. cytochrome oxidase
    b. ubiquinone
    c. succinate dehydrogenase
    d. RETC NADH dehydrogenase complex

    where are each of these found

    • cucumis_sativus says:

      a – inner membrane of mitochondrium

      b – membranes of endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, lysosomes, vesicles and the inner membrane of the mitochondrion

      c – inner mitochondrial membrane

      d – inner mitochondrial membrane

  2. STANLEY S says:

    ubiquinol is stronger than ubiquinone by what ratio?
    I heard ubiquinol (CoQ-10) is 4 times stronger than ubiguinone (CoQ-10). Is this correct?

    • oldtimekid2 says:

      Well, there’s not a straight ratio between the two forms of CoQ10. Basically, Ubiquinol is like a pre-converted form of CoQ10… your body needs to convert Ubiquinone into Ubiquinol to use it efficiently and some people have more trouble converting between the forms (most commonly older people). In the trials that I’ve looked at, the blood plasma levels of CoQ10 are almost 8 times as high, but that doesn’t directly reflect in how high it will be in a living person’s system… it could be closer to 3-4 times, or closer to 6-7 times, depending on how well they convert it.
      I’m sorry there’s not a more clear-cut answer… it would make my life easier when customers ask. LOL!

  3. Captain says:

    vitamin-like factors?
    (bioflavonoids,chline’ inostol, lipoic acid, ubiquinone) is or wat inpackt on the human body

    • Vahid says:

      These factors can have good effects,acting as anti-oxidant or anti-inflammatory. But in my opinion for healthy people a balanced diet provides nutrients needed and,except for some times requiring supplements,there is no need for chemicals.

  4. duddamac says:

    Ubiquinone,what is it? How does it work on the body?

    • cutenucguy says:

      Ubiquinone is also known as coenzyme Q. It is an electron shuttle for the electron transport chain in your cell’s mitochondria. I don’t know how much physiology/biology you know so I’ll just explain and if I’m too thorough, I’m sorry. You cell liberates energy from blood sugar through two series of reactions called glycolysis and the kreb’s cycle. Fat energy is also used from beta-oxidation and the kreb’s cycle. The electrons from fat/glucose are given to a transporter molecule (NADH) which brings them to the electron transport chain. The chain passes the electrons along and uses them to make energy for the body. Ubiquinone (UQH2) is part of the electron transport and serves to pass the electrons along so energy can be made. It has other functions in the body (it is ubiquitous or everywhere), however, I am not sure of it’s status as one of the “most essential nutrients.” I think carbohydrates, protein and water are all pretty essential.

  5. Phi Phi says:

    when NADH+H^+ donates two electrons to ubiquinone during respiration, ubiquinone is?

    • novangelis says:

      Reduced (and NADH is oxidized)

      Mnemonic: LEO says GER

      Loses Electrons = Oxidized
      Gains Electrons = Reduced

  6. The Girl says:

    When NADH donates two electrons to ubiquinone during respiration, ubiquinone is?
    When NADH donates two electrons to ubiquinone during respiration, ubiquinone is

    1. reduced.
    2. oxidized.
    3. phosphorylated.
    4. hydrolyzed.
    5. aerobic.

  7. dreamxxfly says:

    Which of the following describes the sequence of electron carriers in the electron transport chain,?
    Which of the following describes the sequence of electron carriers in the electron transport chain, starting with the least electronegative?

    a. ubiquinone (Q), cytochromes (Cyt), FMN, FeS
    b. cytochromes (Cyt), FMN, ubiquinone, FeS
    c. cytochromes (Cyt), FeS, ubiquinone, FMN
    d. FeS, FMN, cytochromes (Cyt), ubiquinone
    e. FMN, FeS, ubiquinone, cytochromes (Cyt)

    The answer is NOT b.

  8. july says:

    what is Ubiquinone(coenzyme Q10)? is there danger in taking it?
    it is a nutrient in multivitamins.

    • Jason Homan says:

      Hi July, No, it is not a nutrient in multivitamins. Coenzyme Q10 (also known as Co-Q10, Vitamin Q or ubiquinone) is a compound that is made naturally in the body. It is also found in all living organisms and most foods contain traces of it as well. The highest amounts are found in the heart, liver, kidneys, and pancreas, with the lowest amounts found in the lungs. It is needed for the proper functioning of enzymes (thus the reason for the name “coenzyme”) that are necessary for chemical reactions throughout the body. Coenzymes are a sort of energy sparking catalyst for the cells of the body.

      What’s the bad news? Not much. There doesn’t seem to be any documented toxicity from supplementing with CoQ10. However, if you are pregnant or a nursing mom it would be best not to take this supplement as the long terms effects have not been recorded. Some reports suggest CoQ10 will decrease the effectiveness of warfarin – a blood thinner, but there is no evidence to suggest it is decidedly so. Finally, the dosage should not exceed 200 mg per day as this – in some cases – has been shown to cause diarrhea and nausea.
      Jason Homan

  9. pratapdc says:

    which component of etc is not a protein?
    1-CYTROCHOME
    2-UBIQUINONE
    3-CYTROCHOME OXIDASE

    • Yvonne says:

      2 – ubiquinone

      cytochromes are membrane-bound hemoproteins that contain heme groups and carry out electron transport.

      ubiquinone is a compound having a quinone chemical group and the 10 isoprenyl chemical subunits, it does not have amino acids, so it is not a protein

      cytochrome oxidase is an enzyme, so it is a protein because enzymes are made up of protein

  10. anukul says:

    Has anybody tried CoQ10 for heart disease ? How’s your experience about it ? Is it any good as they say ?
    I have read in medical journals and books about dietary food that Co enzyme Q10 also known as Ubiquinone is good for your heart. I would like to know first hand experience from those who have tried this supplementary tonic. Is it available with the chemists easily ? Please answer only if you have tried it.

  11. JackieFlash says:

    The mother of all biology questions, right here!!?
    High-energy electrons from molecules of NADH and FADH2 are transferred to a chain of proteins within the electron transport chain. What is the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain?

    a. carbon dioxide
    b. oxygen
    c. cytochrome c
    d. ubiquinone
    e. NAD+

  12. The High Flying Freedom Frie says:

    I am looking for European manifacturers of Coenzyme Q10 (also called Ubiquinone)?
    Thanks :)

    • oldtimekid says:

      I don’t believe there are any…. virtually all CoQ10 in the world comes from Japan.
      …Or are you asking so you can buy some in Europe? If you are in Europe and are looking to get CoQ10, you should be able to get it sent to you from any of a number of mail order vitamin companies…. at least, I know we ship internationally. Well, in any case, good luck!

  13. mesh says:

    ubiquinone and signal transduction in the cell?? relation???
    ubiquinone plays an important role as an antioxidant! so i want to know its connection between signal transduction system and regulation

    • NeuroProf says:

      It is hypothesized that the inhibitory effect ubiquinone has on NF-kB, a major regulator of immune response and a primary transcription factor for anti-oxidant enzymes, is due to the reduction of oxidant stimulation. Ubiquinone is involved in a large number of pathways, so you would have to be more specific than merely antioxidant.

  14. buzzbabeebuzz says:

    Great (cheap) skin serums?
    I am looking for a good skin serum for nighttime with all of the following:
    Vitamin A
    Vitamin B3
    Vitamin B5
    Vitamin E
    Alpha-hydroxy acids
    Ubiquinone or coenzyme Q10
    Ferulic acid
    It’s gotta be good and cheap, so if you know any please share! Thank you!!! <3

  15. Tiffany T says:

    anyone know this biology question?
    During oxidative phosphorylation, which electron carrier hands its electrons to the electron transport chain at the highest level of free energy?
    A) NADH
    B) FADH2
    C) Ubiquinone
    D) Cytochrome B
    E) None of the above

  16. Danved Dary says:

    Which feature is NOT RELEVANT to the process of proton pumping in matrix?
    ALL the facts listed below are TRUE features of the electron transport chain.
    Which feature is NOT RELEVANT to the process of proton pumping from the
    mitochondrial matrix?
    A. In each Complex there are proteins which have electron or hydrogencarrying
    prosthetic groups
    B. The Complexes are free to move laterally in the inner mitochondrial
    membrane
    C. Some Complexes span the membrane
    D. In some redox reactions in the chain, protons are consumed
    E. The inter-complex carriers ubiquinone and cytochrome c carry
    hydrogens and electrons, respectively

    • Mallory says:

      C. Some Complexes span the membrane.

      Although it’s true, out of the other answers it is the least relevant and has to do least with proton pumping.

  17. bertha says:

    What have you experienced with CoQ10? Coenzyme Q10 – ubiquinone – Co Q10?
    I started taking CoQ10 because a friend was taking it. Before that I had been having the kind of searing, throbbing tooth pain that I recognized (from experience) would surely require a root canal. I was crossing my fingers that the tooth would last until I could get insurance. Well not only did the tooth pain go away, but my gums stopped hurting and got thicker and pinker, and my teeth stopped being sensitive. The tooth pain never came back. The only thing I was doing differently at the time was the CoQ10, so of course I give it all the credit, although I can’t know for sure. I guess I could stop taking it, to know for sure, but why?

    Please share your experiences with CoQ10, positive and negative. I’m especially interested to hear if anyone had similar results with thier teeth/gums.

    Thanks!

  18. Cassie says:

    HELP BIO QUESTION!!!!!?
    Which of the following describes the sequence of electron carriers in the electron transport chain, starting with the least electronegative?

    A. ubiquinone (Q), cytochromes (Cyt), FMN, Fe∙S
    B. FMN, Fe∙S, ubiquinone, cytochromes (Cyt)
    C. Fe∙S, FMN, cytochromes (Cyt), ubiquinone
    D. cytochromes (Cyt), FMN, ubiquinone, Fe∙S
    E. cytochromes (Cyt), Fe∙S, ubiquinone, FMN

  19. Emily says:

    4. What is different about ubiquinone?
    The constituents of the electron transport chain have similar capabilities, with the exception of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). What is different about ubiquinone?

    A)Ubiquinone is a protein that is a constituent of all cells, prokaryotic or eukaryotic; hence its name originating from “ubiquitous.”
    B)Ubiquinone is lipid soluble and so can move through the inner mitochondrial membrane.
    C)Ubiquinone is a protein that serves as a regulator of the rate of redox reactions in the electron transport chain.
    D)Ubiquinone is a protein that begins the electron transport chain, so it accepts the highest-energy electrons.

  20. hockeysticks says:

    NADH dehydrogenase complex? ?
    Which of the following comparisons between succinate dehydrogenase complex and NADH dehydrogenase complex is NOT accurate:

    A. Each complex accepts high energy electrons from a different electron donor.
    B. Both complexes donate their electrons to ubiquinone.
    C. Electrons that are passed through succinate dehydrogenase will ultimately yield more ATP molecules than electrons passing through NADH dehydrogenase complex.
    D. NADH dehydrogenase complex has a more negative redox potential than the succinate dehydrogenase complex.
    E. None of the above

    • novangelis says:

      C. Electrons that are passed through succinate dehydrogenase will ultimately yield more ATP molecules than electrons passing through NADH dehydrogenase complex.

      Succinate yields 2 and NADH yields 3.

  21. Greg J says:

    Which of these beauty product ingrediants are likely to be found in a gammon steak?
    This is a list of joke beauty products. which are found in a gammon steak

    *Pentapeptides
    * Co-Resistium
    * Liposomes
    * Ceramides
    * Adrenalyse
    * Adenoxine
    * Ubiquinone
    * Retinol (vitamin A)
    * Phyto Flavone
    by ‘joke’ i mean they are real, but don’t really do anything.

  22. Tomi says:

    my cream contains 17 ingredientes, ubiquinon is the 7th. How much Q10 does it contain then?
    Ingredients: Aqua, Glycerin, Paraffinum Liquidiqum, Isopropyl Palmitate, Cetearyl Alcohol, Methylpropanediol, Ubiquinone, Pimpinella Ansium Extract, Panthenol, Glyceryl Stearate SE, PEG-40 Castor Oil, Sodium Phenoxyethanol, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Benzyl Alcohol, Parfum.

    • greendawn says:

      It’s not possible to know its amount or that of any other ingredient for that matter, all you can tell is that it is 7th largest ingredient.

  23. stlcards06champs says:

    If dintirophenol, a compound that permeabilizes membranes to protons, is added to mitochondria, …?
    A) the electron transport chain will transfer electrons but no protons.
    B) the electron transport chain will stop transferring electrons.
    C) there will be no effect on mitochondrial function.
    D) the electron transport chain will function, but ATP synthesis will stop.
    E) the electron transport chain will function, but ATP synthesis will slow.

    When I read the question, I first thought that this would eliminate the proton motive force because the inner membrane is now permeable to protons. That in turn would eliminate transport powered by this gradient. Next, I thought that this would mean that there would not be protons moving down their gradient between the rotor and stator of ATP synthase. Furthermore, ATP synthase would quite possibly hydrolyze ATP to restore the gradient with no success. Thus no ATP is produced but rather used. My first reaction was to choose choice D: the electron transport chain will function, but ATP synthesis will stop.
    But as I thought further, I realized ALL transport into the mitochondria powered by the proton motive force would stop too. This means no symport of pyruvate, inorganic phosphate, or NADH produced during glycolysis into the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Although lack of inorganic phosphate in the inner membrane supports the hypothesis of no ATP synthesis, it does not support the first part of choice D: the electron transport chain will function. I then thought that because pyruvate is produced in the cytosol during glycolysis, it needs to be transported into the matrix. However, this cannot occur without a proton gradient fueling the pyruvate/H+ symport carrier protein. Furthermore, fatty acids also need a proton coupled symporter for transport into the inner membrane. Both fatty acids and pyruvate are then unable to produce acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle stops. NADH produced in the cytosol during glycolysis is also unable to cross the inner membrane. Without FADH2 or NADH in the matrix, no electrons are donated to ubiquinone via succinate-CoQ reductase or to NADH dehydrogenase respectively.

    am I correct? the answer should be B?
    I missed this on an exam. The correct answer was marked as D. I told my professor and she instructed me to write out an explanation. Does what I have sound alright?
    But WHY are electrons still transferred? Without a gradient, pyruvate isn’t transferred into the inner membrane, the citric acid cannot produce NADH and FADH2, and no electron is donated to the electron transport chain. I must be missing a mechanism of transport into the inner membrane.

    • sci219 says:

      Well. with dinitrophenol (DNP), it causes the whole system to become uncoupled. This means that the hydrogen gradient is not being produced and the other hydrogens that are currently in the outer membrane will diffuse out, meaning uncoupled.
      This means that the proton gradient is ruined = no ATP production.
      You can still have electron transport, but the hydrogen gradient is useless because is is uncoupled = no ATP production.
      That is why D is the correct answer and not B.
      http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~molbio/Courses/301/fatburner.html
      http://www.answers.com/topic/2-4-dinitrophenol

      As a quick note: Even though it is said you can lose weight by taking this compound, it is very dangerous to take.
      DNP causes uncoupling = high heat release = may die of high fever.

      good luck.

  24. mikymaky says:

    yes we know that it is CoQ10 but how do we know if it is ubiquinone or ubiquinol?

    • alt.healer says:

      The back label should tell you. Also, no one sells ubiquinone alone because it is the inactive half of CoQ10. So the front label will say either Ubiquinol or CoQ10( which of course is a natural 50/50 mix of ubiquinol and ubiquinone).

  25. Katie says:

    Is the oxidation of free FADH2 by ubiquinone sufficiently exergonic to drive the synthesis of ATP?
    This is under standard conditions.

    • beastmaster says:

      nope it also require the NADPH in photosynthesis or NADH+H in repiration remeber it is not the same electron

  26. lavanya s says:

    does anyone provide me with the details of a drug called ‘Ubiquinone’?

    • spiritwalker says:

      Ubiquinone is one of the two most important essential nutrients (the other being ascorbic acid). These two molecules, along with other essential nutrients, have been rejected as unpatentable and unprofitable by certain “authorities” and interests, according to expose’s by Pauling and others.[1,2] This has been one of the most lethal errors of modern medicine because no cell, organ, function, remedy, etc, can avoid failure unless essential nutrients, especially these two, are optimal. Supplementation of both is mandatory: for ascorbate, lifelong (since humans can’t synthesize it); for ubiquinone, increasingly with age. In this update, to facilitate study of ubiquinone, we seek to assemble in one place vital information that is not widely known.

      Negative “Studies.” A very few negative “studies” from the early 1990’s up to present have reported lack of beneficial effects of ubiquinone for congestive heart failure (CHF). Fundamentally, these negative studies have been criticized as cases of too little ubiquinone, for too short a time and too late in the course of CHF in the trial patients. Correct treatment should include the essential nutrients (ubiquinone, vitamin E, and ascorbic acid) and no statins. Self-appointed “experts” who have no experience in treating CHF correctly have praised these few negative “studies” while ignoring the vastly greater literature cited above including the large scale trials demonstrating the positive aspects of ubiquinone. Could the negative studies have been “designed” to produce failures? Is this action designed to oppose acceptance of the low cost (unprofitable), non-toxic (endogenous), versatile ubiquinone modality. Certainly the investigators and extollers of these negative “trials” appear to be totally oblivious of the fundamental physiology of ubiquinone requiring its constant replacement at 500 mg/day by synthesis from exogenous substrate or by supplementation.

      Positive Studies. Clinical observations of cardiologists who have had extensive experience with the use of ubiquinone (such as Peter Langsjoen) find dramatic improvements in heart function in CHF patients treated with ubiquinone prior to the development of irreversible damage. While the optimal dose of ubiquinone in the treatment of congestive heart failure is not established, it has become clear over the past 15 years, that 100 mg per day (the dose used in some of the negative studies) is suboptimal for the majority of patients. A higher dose of ubiquinone for a longer period of time has demonstrated highly significant benefit in many previously published trials. An extensive review of ubiquinone use for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 34 controlled clinical trials and several open-label and long-term studies has recently been published.42

  27. mini says:

    Q.ubiquinone transports?
    Q.ubiquinone transports

    a]electron and proton in many respiratory electron transport chain.
    b]electron only in many respiratory transport chain.
    c]electron & proton in photosynthesis.
    d]electron only in photosynthesis.

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