Plant Life Cell Wall

INTRODUCTION

India has to support 16% of world food needs in the available less than 2 % land of the country. Hence agriculture has to maximize its efficiency. Which can be achieved only by understanding and engineering the plants to make them survive in the adverse condition.
Plant growth requires not only carbon dioxide and oxygen from the air but also water and mineral nutrients from the soil. Soil has been called the “placenta of life”, because it supplies essential nutrients to all land plants and the plants in turn feed all the terrestrial ecosystem. Throughout the history, humanity standard of living has depended on the fertility and productivity of the soil.
Soil erosion and salinization are accelerated by poor agronomic practices. Mismanagement and neglect of soil can ruin the arable land, which is a fragile and precious resource. The harappan civilization in western India, Mesopotamia in Asia minor , and the mayan culture in central America all collapsed partly because of soil degradation. Maintaining productive should be one of society’s important goals.
Most crops are salt sensitive or hypersensitive (glycophytes ) in contrast to halophytes , which are native flora of saline environment , halophytes have the capacity to accommodate extreme salinity , because of various special anatomical and morphological and physiological adaptation or avoidance mechanism.
Approximately 330 species of vesicular plants (i.e.<0.15% of total number), have been demonstrated as desiccation tolerant.
The majority of bryophytes which represent 30,000 spp of mosses , liverwort , hornworts are postulated to tolerate at least brief desiccation of low intensity.

HALOPHYTES :

Plants which grow and complete their life cycles in a habit with a high salt concentration are commonly designated as halophytes these are the specialized plants growing under saline environment commonly found near sea shore where the concentration of salts ( NaCl , MgSo4 , MgCl2 etc ) are relatively high. Although such plants grow in water or in area well saturated with water , water absorption is extremely difficult process , thus halophytes are physiologically dry but physically wet habitants. For this reason they have under gone a detail morphological physiological and anatomical adaptation , during their life cycle.

MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS :

A ) ROOT:

1.In halophytes in addition to normal roots , many stilt or prop roots develops from the aerial branches of the stem. Example? Rhizophora mucronata.
2.Some times a large number of root buttresses develops from the basal part of the tree trunks.
Example ? Dischidia numularia
3.In order to compensate lack of soil aeration they develop special type of negatively geotropic roots , called pneumatophores , this peg like structures causes numerous lenticells inner surface.

B) STEM:

Stems of several halophytes are succulent. Which is induced only after the accumulation of free ions in this organs. They are either hard or tough or swollen or fleshy and are usually covered with hairs.

C ) LEAVES

1.The leaves of most halophytes are thick , succulent , genrally small sized and glassy in appearance
2.Leaves of aerohalopytes are densely covered with trichomes on their surface ,
3.Leaves of submerged marine halophytes are thin , thorny with thick cutinized cuticle,

D) FRUITS & SEEDS

Fruits, seeds and pollen grains usually light in weight, surface of fruit have waxy covering that prevents damage during their transportation through water medium.
Halophytes specially mangroves growing in the tidal region shows the phenomenon of viviparous germination which can be defined as the process of germination of seeds while the fruit is still attached with the mother plant.

ANATOMICAL ADAPTATION

1.Epidermis is highly cutinized and covered with epidermal outgrowths like hairs which prevents transpiration and salt spray into the plant body. Both dorsiventral and isobilateral leaves shows sunken and reduced stomata
2.Cortex shows mucilage cavities , tannin cells , spicule , lacuna , schlerides , salt glands which are very important characteristic modification of the cortical regions in such plants which are adapted in this saline environment.
3.Vascular bundles are very poorly developed and they are conjoint collateral with exarch xylum strands.
4.stele is well liginified.
5.Most of the cell have elastic cell walls.
6.mesophyll cells are differtiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.
7.Cholorophyll content is very low within the cells among these halophytes.

diagram [ A ] attached in the blog address given below

PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION

1.salinity reduces the rate of cell division which promotes the rate of cell elongation ,
2.The cells of free ions which improves its turgidity and increases its adaptability from salinity.
3.The plants show high rates of transpiration which is helpful to tolerate saline condition and to maintain normal rate of metabolism.
4.Halophytes shows exudation of sap that contains dissolved salts.
5.Some halophytes have salt secreting glands and water storage tissues.
6.The viviparous of mangrove plants is one of the most important physiological adaptations responsible for normal growth and development of new seedling.

GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN PLANTS

The extensive genetic diversity for salt tolerance that exists in plant texa is distributed over numerous genera , researchers of recent decade established that most halophytes and glycophytes tolerate salinity by rather similar strategy often using analogous tactical processes. The cytotoxic ions in saline environments , typically Sodium ion and Chloride ion are compartmentalized into the vacuole and used as osmotic salts , the fact that cellular ion homeostasis is controlled and effected by common molecular entity for the dissection of the plant salt stress response .

GENETICS OF STRESS:

To breed or genetically engineer plant stress tolerance , it is imperative to identify the genes that control these traits and to understand how these genes work and their products are regulated.
The products of some of the stress inducible genes may play role in stress signaling and stress tolerance .
Example : enzymes that function in the biosynthesis compatible solutes ( osmolytes ) or either directly in detoxification of reactive oxidants or in the biosynthesis antioxidant compounds ion transporters , ABA biosynthetic enzymes etc..
The products of some other genes may also have protective roles against stress damage. These are mainly “late embryogenesis abundant” ( LEA) like proteins.

In some cases genes that are physically associated with certain key stress induced genes in a chromatin region may be regulated by stress , although these genes may not be related otherwise.
Example : UFC { upstream of FLC (flowering locus )gene } gene. FLC is a flowering repressor whose transcript level is down regulated by cold treatment (vernalization ). Interestingly, UFC is similarly regulated by vernalization yet it does not relate to FLC either in sequence or function. They are merely neighboring genes on the same chromosome. This suggests that chromosome location has a strong influence on the induction of certain genes.

SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Signal transduction is required for many cellular activites and their coordination. Some signal trasduction process are simple but most others are complex , involving multiple components occurring in time and space dependent manner.
Generally signal transduction starts with the perception of the stimulus by a specific cellular molecule(s). The sensors or receptors may differ in their molecular identities, mode of signal perception and output , as well as subcellular localization.
In plant cells , it is also common for receptor activaton to result in the generation of secondary messenger , so called because they represent intracellular signals being translated form the primary external signal. The intracellular signals are interpreted further by other signals component(s) and result in the activation of down stream pathways that may have multiple outputs.

signal transduction diagram [ B ] given in the blog , link given below

A conceptual signal transduction pathway for drought , cold , and salt stress in plants. Secondary molecules can cause receptor mediated calcium ion release(indicated in feed back arrow ). These partners that modulate the components in the main pathway can be regulated by the main pathway. signalling can also bypass calcium ions or secondary signaling molecules in early signaling step.
GPCR ? G-protein coupled receptor.
RLK ? receptor-like kinase.
InsP ? inositol pol phosphate.

Ca2+ Signaling and the Activation of the Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) Signal Transduction Pathway

It was identified that three genetically linked Arabidopsis loci (SOS1, SOS2 and SOS3), which are components of a stress-signaling pathway that controls ion homeostasis and salt tolerance . Genetic analysis of Na+/Li+ sensitivity established that sos1 is epistatic to sos2 and sos3 . These sos mutants also exhibit a K+ deficient phenotype in medium supplemented with ?M [K+]ext and [Ca2+]ext. Na+ and K+ deficiency of sos2 and sos3 is suppressed with mM [Ca2+]ext . sos1 exhibits hyperosmotic sensitivity unlike sos3 and sos2. Together, these results indicate that the SOS signaling pathway regulates Na+ and K+ homeostasis and is Ca2+ activated. SOS3 encodes a Ca2+ binding protein with sequence similarity to the regulatory B subunit of calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B) and neuronal Ca2+ sensors Interaction of SOS3 with the SOS2 kinase and SOS2 activation is Ca2+ dependent The in planta function of SOS3 as a salt tolerance determinant is dependent on Ca2+ binding and Nmyristoylation . The SOS2 serine/threonine kinase (446 amino acids) has a 267 amino acid N-terminal catalytic domain that is similar in sequence to yeast SNF1 (sucrose nonfermenting) kinase and the mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). The kinase activity of SOS2 is essential for its salt tolerance determinant function . The SOS2 C-terminal regulatory domain interacts with the kinase domain to cause autoinhibition. A 21 amino acid motif in the regulatory domain of SOS2 is the site where SOS3 interacts with the kinase and is the autoinhibitory domain of the kinase . Binding of SOS3 to this motif blocks autoinhibition of SOS2 kinase activity. Deletion of the autoinhibitory domain results in constitutive SOS2 activation, independent of SOS3. Also, a Thr168 to Asp mutation in the activation loop of the kinase domain constitutively activates SOS2.Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that components of the SOS signal pathway function in the hierarchical sequence . Ca2+ binds to SOS3, which leads to interaction with SOS2 and activation of the kinase. Among the SOS signal pathway outputs are transport systems that facilitate ion homeostasis. The plasma membrane sited Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 is controlled by the SOS pathway at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level Recently, functional disruption of AtHKT1 was shown to suppress the salt sensitive phenotype of sos3-1, indicating that the SOS pathway negatively controls this Na+ influx system. Also, the SOS pathway negatively controls expression of AtNHX family members that are implicated as determinants in the salt stress response.[Ca2+]ext enhances salt tolerance and salinity stress elicits a transient [Ca2+]cyt increase, from either an internal or external source, that has been implicated in adaptation . Yeast has provided insight into Ca2+ activation of salt stress signaling that controls ion homeostasis and tolerance.The hyperosmotic component of high salinity induces a short duration (1 min) rise in [Ca2+]cyt that is due substantially to influx across the plasma membrane through the Cch1p and Mid1p Ca2+ transport system. The transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt activates the PP2B phosphatase calcineurin (a key intermediate in salt stress signaling controlling ion homeostasis) leading to the transcription of ENA1, which encodes the P-type ATPase that is primarily responsible for Na+ efflux across the plasma membrane .The model proposes that the hyperosmotically-induced localized [Ca2+]cyt transient activates calmodulin that is tethered to Cch1p-Midp. Calmodulin in turn activates signaling through the calcineurin pathway, which mediates ion homeostasis and salt tolerance. From these results, a paradigm for salt-induced Ca2+ signaling and the activation of the SOS pathway can be suggested. Components of the SOS pathway, either SOS3 or upstream elements, might be associated with an osmotically responsive channel through which Ca2+ influx could initiate signaling through the pathway. These are constituent of signal pathways that respond to different inducers but are still components of the plant response to salt stress. SOS signaling transduction by physical interaction with the positive effectors or competition for substrate required for signaling. Such positive and negative regulation of signal modulation constitute a fine tuning necessary to achieve the appropriate plant response for stress adaptation and ill stability.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What would parts of a plant cell relate to in real life?
    example: a cell wall could be like_______
    i need the following related to real life
    cell wall, nucleus, ribosomes, golgi complex, cytoplasm, vacuole, mitochondria, cytoplasm, chloroplast, cell membrane Plese and Thank You

    • ANSWER:
      You could compare it to a factory, and each organelle would be something to do with that, nucleus would be the managment office etc.

  2. QUESTION:
    how are plant cell walls important in human life?
    plant cell wall

    • ANSWER:
      we all know that fibres are important for our body.

      plant cell walls contains cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, gums and pectin which are very important to our health

  3. QUESTION:
    Which if the following statements best explains why the plant life cycle is described as an “alternation of ge?
    Which if the following statements best explains why the plant life cycle is described as an “alternation of generations”?
    A.The plant life cycle is divided into young and old generations.
    B.The plant life cycle alternates between two different species of plants.
    C.The plant life cycle includes both photosynthesis and respiration.
    D.The plant life cycle goes back and forth between a haploid stage and a diploid stage.

    Plants take the energy in sunlight and turn it into the energy in food molecules. This process is referred to as
    A.mitosis.
    B.meiosis.
    C.photosynthesis.
    D.respiration.

    Mosses grow close to the ground because they
    A.lack the nutrients needed to grow tall.
    B.lack vascular tissue.
    C.need direct sunlight.
    D.do not perform photosynthesis.

    In the alternation of generations life cycle a zygote is formed after fertilization takes place. This zygote grows into an adult plant called a
    A.gametophyte.
    B.sporophyte.
    C.spore.
    D.gamete.

    Which of the following statements is true about plants?
    A.Plant cells have membrane-bound nuclei.
    B.Plant cells do not have chloroplasts.
    C.Plant cells use up oxygen for photosynthesis.
    D.Plant cells have cell walls made of lipids.

    Vascular tissue allows plants to move water and nutrients throughout the plant body. Another effect of vascular tissue is that it allows plants to
    A.stay low to the ground.
    B.grow taller than plants without vascular tissue.
    C.take in water through their leaves.
    D.reproduce via sexual reproduction.

    HELPPPPP! Please and thank you. :(

    • ANSWER:
      These questions are extremely simple, you clearly don’t have a textbook or teacher if you can’t answer these.
      1) D
      2) C
      3) B
      4) B
      5) A
      6) B

  4. QUESTION:
    UNITY & DIVERSITY OF LIFE Fungi, plants and prokaryotes?
    UNITY & DIVERSITY OF LIFE Fungi, plants and prokaryotes all have a similar structure, CELL WALLS. However the cell walls in each are made up of different kinds of biological molecules. Match the cell wall components to the organism.
    A. peptidoglycan
    B. cellulose
    C. chitin

    1.component of plant cell walls
    2.component of prokaryotic cell walls
    3. component of fungi cell walls

    • ANSWER:
      A. peptidoglycan ———- 2.component of prokaryotic cell walls (esp of bacteria)
      B. cellulose ——— 1.component of plant cell walls
      C. chitin —————– 3. component of fungi cell walls

  5. QUESTION:
    How do cell walls and cuticals help plants adapt to life on land?

    • ANSWER:
      cell walls keep the cell rigid, so they can stay upright.

      cuticles reduce water loss through evaporation, preventing the plant from being dehydrated

  6. QUESTION:
    How are parenchyma cells important in healing a plant’s wounds?
    A. They can regenerate throughout the plant’s life.
    B. They have very tough cell walls.
    C. They are not needed for photosynthesis.
    D. They allow growth despite their thick walls.

    • ANSWER:
      Parenchyma cells are not differentiated, neither morphologically nor physiologically. It is not uncommon that they contain chloroplasts. Sometimes, especially when grown without light, leucoplasts or incompletely structured chloroplasts can be found. Although hardly any cell division takes place in differentiated parenchyma, the cells keep their ability to divide: they make up the bulk of cells participating in wound healing and regeneration of plant organs. Consequently, the cells could be said to be in a kind of waiting position. They form a pool of cells that can be activated when required, for example during ontogenesis and at unusual incidents.

      Answer = A.

  7. QUESTION:
    I Need to Make an Edible Plant Cell. Help?
    I need to make an entire thing out of edible object to signify some parts of the Plant Cell.
    I want to make the cell wall out of cake, the membrane as liquorice, and the ribosomes as Life Savers. I need some ideas about what to use for all of the other organelles. I wanted to make the cytoplasm out of jello, but everything in this has to go without being refrigerated for the whole school day.
    I need food ideas that signify these organelles:
    (The food has to be sugary. I can’t have a boiled egg inside the cake. The project will be eaten by the class after wards, so it needs to be good food!)
    Nucleus
    Cytoplasm
    Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Golgi Bodies
    Mitochondria
    Vacuoles
    and Chloroplasts.

    If you have ANY ideas, please let me know! Every bit helps!

    • ANSWER:
      can u get some one to drop it of at school for u
      if u cant just make every thing out of fondant on cake cz it doesnt need to be refrigerated aft u put it on the cake h
      hope wat ever u do turns out good

  8. QUESTION:
    I am doing a Biology report for a Plant Cell?
    I need to do a collage by representing different parts in reference to daily life, which I decided to pick the U.S. as my thing. I need to know what the following refer to the parts of the U.S.

    Nucleus – I think would be like Washington D.C.
    Cell Wall – Probably the boundary lines?
    Cytoplasm – I have no idea
    Cell Membrane – I think this is kinda like the cell wall
    Cilia/flagellum – no idea
    Mitochondria – the power plants?
    Golgi Apparatus – no idea
    Lysosome – no idea
    Ribosomes – no idea
    Vacuole – no idea
    Endoplasmic Reticulum – no idea
    Chloroplast – no idea

    I have fallen asleep in the class this entire week and have no idea what half the stuff on this paper is, please help

    • ANSWER:
      is there anyway you can change your item? this one is really hard

  9. QUESTION:
    The Cell: Eukaryote…Complex cells?
    Question 1 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Some argue that a prokaryote cell is more complex than a eukaryote cell even though it does not have all the cell parts. Which of the following best defends this argument?

    A.)Prokaryote cells are much larger and carry out more processes.
    B.)Prokaryote cells must do perfectly timed chemical life processes in one open space as opposed to different organelles doing their special job all the time.
    C.)Prokaryote cells’ genetic material is not bound by a nucleus and can carry out protein synthesis faster.
    D.)None of the above
    __________________________________________
    Question 2 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Studying a picture of a cell with an electron microscope, you find that the cell has a cell wall, a nucleus, and a large central vacuole. You conclude that the cell is probably a(n)

    A.)Animal cell
    B.)Plant cell
    C.)Prokaryotic cell
    D.)Bacterial cell
    __________________________________
    Question 3 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which organelle is used for the storage of food, water or waste?

    A.)Vacuole
    B.)Mitochondria
    C.)Golgi bodies
    D.)Chloroplast
    _______________________________________
    Question 4 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    The _____________ controls what enters and exits the cell and is found in all cell types.

    A.)Mitochondria
    B.)Cell membrane
    C.)Ribosomes
    D.)Cytoplasm
    ______________________________________
    Question 5 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which of the following is NOT a eukaryote type cell?

    A.)Animal cell
    B.)Plant cell
    C.)Protist cell
    D.)Bacterial cell
    _______________________________________
    Question 6 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which cell organelle, responsible for helping build proteins, is also found in prokaryote cells because it is not surrounded by a membrane?

    A.)Ribosome
    B.)Chloroplast
    C.)Lysomsome
    D.)None of the above
    _____________________________________
    Question 7 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which of the following can be found inside the nucleus?

    A.)Cilia
    B.)Lysosomes
    C.)DNA
    D.)None of the above
    _____________________________________
    Question 8 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    The mitochondrion is the cell organelle responsible for _____________.

    A.)The process of photosynthesis and making food
    B.)The process of cellular respiration and releasing energy
    C.)The process of digestion and waste removal
    D.)None of the above

    Question 9 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    The _______________carries on the process of photosynthesis.

    A.)Cell wall
    B.)Chloroplast
    C.)Nucleus
    D.)Cytoplasm
    _____________________________________________
    Question 10 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which type of cell does NOT contain a nucleus?

    A.)Skin cell
    B.)Muscle cell
    C.)Bacteria cell
    D.)None of the above
    __________________________________________
    Question 11 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    The collective term that describes the jellylike substance and the organelles suspended in it is the:

    A.)Cytoskeleton
    B.)Cytosol
    C.)Cytoplasm
    D.)Chloroplast
    ___________________________________
    Question 12 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which of the following organelles provides protection for a plant cell?

    A.)Chloroplast
    B.)Cytoplasm
    C.)Cell Wall
    D.)Chlorophyll
    ______________________________________
    Question 13 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which of the following pairs do NOT go together?

    A.)Animal cell – Centrioles
    B.)Plant cell – Chloroplast
    C.)Animal cell – Cell wall
    D.)Plant cell – Eukaryote
    __________________________________________
    Question 14 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which of the below is not true about the cytoplasm:

    A.)It fills the space between the nucleus and cell membrane
    B.)It is found only in the animal cell
    C.)Contains and supports the cell organelles
    D.)It is full of proteins that control the cell metabolism
    ______________________________________
    Question 15 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    The term used to describe a cell part that does a specific job is ___________.

    A.)Organ
    B.)Donelle
    C.)Organelle
    D.)Organism
    ___________________________________
    Question 16 (Essay Worth 5 points)

    Choose one cell part from a eukaryote type cell. Relate that organelle to a part of a city and describe how they are similar. (For example the lonesomes are like waste management in that they help get rid of the “garbage” inside the cell.)

    • ANSWER:
      B
      B
      A
      B
      D
      A
      C
      B
      B
      D
      B
      C
      C
      B
      C
      mitochondria–> powerplant

  10. QUESTION:
    Which of the following statements is true about plants?
    A.Plant cells do not have membrane-bound nuclei.
    B.Plants have a single generation life cycle.
    C.Plants are members of the domain Prokarya.
    D.Plant cells have cell walls made of cellulose.

    • ANSWER:
      D.Plant cells have cell walls made of cellulose.

      Cell walls are made of specialized sugars called cellulose. Cellulose provides a protected framework for a plant cell to survive. It’s like taking a water balloon and putting it in a cardboard box. The balloon is protected from the outside world. Cellulose is called a structural carbohydrate (complex sugar) because it is used in protection and support.

      Cell walls also help a plant keep its shape. While they do protect the cells, cell walls and cellulose also allow plants to grow to great heights. While you have a skeleton to hold you up, a 100-foot tall redwood tree does not. It uses the strong cell walls to maintain its shape. For smaller plants, cell walls are slightly elastic. Wind can push them over and then they bounce back. Big redwoods need strength in high winds and sway very little (except at the top).

  11. QUESTION:
    Plant adaptations to life on land?
    a. involve mainly the shoot system
    b. include lignin-reinforced cell walls
    c. include pipelines that conduct water from soil to leaves.
    d. involve only the root system.
    e. include lignin-reinforced cell walls and pipelines that conduct water from soils to leaves.

    • ANSWER:
      Correct answer is:
      e. include lignin-reinforced cell walls and pipelines that conduct water from soils to leaves.

      More info:
      Chapter “Plants – Adaptations to Land” of this site

      http://home.earthlink.net/~dayvdanls/PlantEvol.html#Adaptations%20to%20Land

  12. QUESTION:
    While cell division is the source of cells what process is responsible for most of the actual plant growth?
    1. In addition to cellulose, what are the four other general classes of molecules that are important to cell wall structure?
    2. What is the major structural and functional characteristic between primary and secondary cell wall?
    3. What is the composition and structure of a microfibril?
    4. What is the basic building block of a cellulose chain?
    5. Be able to describe in general terms how and where cellulose is synthesized.
    6. Where are the other cell wall polysaccharides synthesized and how are they transferred into the growing cell wall.

    I know I have several questions and if anyone can answer any of them I’d be most grateful. I need to know these for a plant physiology exam but its not in his notes, we do not have a book, and for the life of me I cannot figure them out. Please help. Thanks :)

    • ANSWER:
      Photosynthesis

  13. QUESTION:
    1. The basic activities of life occur in the ____.?
    nucleus
    DNA
    mitochondria
    cell

    2. The ____ provides support and protection for plant cells.

    cell wall
    chloroplast
    cell membrane
    vacuole

    3. Unlike many other theories, the cell theory contains ____ distinct ideas.

    one
    three
    two
    four

    • ANSWER:
      1. cell
      2. cell wall
      3. That’s a very subjective question – I’d suggest reading your textbook or looking at class notes. If the answer was up to me, I’d say two.

      Two German biologists, Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, were the first to make the generalization in 1839 that all living things consist of cells, a conclusion they came two based on the observations of themselves and others. The theory later expanded to include the idea that all cells come form other cells.

  14. QUESTION:
    What part of the cell is responsible for breaking down and digesting things?
    What part of the cell is responsible for breaking down and digesting things?
    ribosomes
    lysosomes
    endoplasmic reticulum
    vacuole

    What part of the cell serves as the intracellular highway?
    endoplasmic reticulum
    golgi apparatus
    cell membrane
    mitochondria

    Which of the following would you NOT find in a bacterial cell?
    DNA
    cell membrane
    golgi apparatus
    ribosomes

    Which of the following is found in plant cells, but not animal cells?
    cell wall
    vacuole
    mitochondria
    endoplasmic reticulum

    The jellylike interior of the cell is called the:
    vacuole
    cytoplasm
    cytoskeleton
    nucleus

    What part of the cell makes proteins?
    ribosomes
    mitochondria
    lysosomes
    vacuole

    Where are ribosomes usually located in animal and plant cells?
    inside the nucleus
    near the cell membrane
    on the endoplasmic reticulum
    inside the vacuole

    What part of the cell serves to process, package and export proteins?
    mitochondria
    endoplasmic reticulum
    nucleolus
    golgi apparatus

    What part of the cell influences heredity?
    the cell wall
    chromosomes
    the endoplasmic reticulum
    the ribosomes

    What is the function of the cell wall?
    to protect the cell
    to aid in reproduction
    to provide energy
    to carry the genetic information

    What is the instrument called that helps us study one-celled life forms?
    the microscope
    a magnifying glass
    both 1 and 2
    neither 1 nor 2

    • ANSWER:
      lysosomes
      endoplasmic reticulum
      cell membrane
      vacuole
      cytoplasm
      mitochondria
      n the endoplasmic reticulum
      golgi apparatus
      chromosomes
      to provide energy
      the microscope

  15. QUESTION:
    I need help with a song about Plant Cells.?
    I’m in seventh grade and my life science teacher gave us a project where we have to create a song about plant cell structure. Here’s the rubric:

    1. All appropriate organelles are in the song 20 points
    2. Accurate functions of all organelles are included 35 points
    3. Neat copy- underlined- turned in 20 points
    4. Song is memorized and performed 25 points

    Don’t worry about # 3 and 4 I’ll do those I just really need help!!!
    The song can be written in tune to another song, it can be a rap or anything.

    The extra credits are
    1. Robert Hooke and discovery
    2. Antoine van Leeuwenhoke and discovery
    3. Schleiden/Schwann and discovery
    4. Cell Theory- all components
    5. Background music

    Here are the cell organelles that have to be included in the song/rap

    Nucleus
    Nucleolus
    Golgi Body
    Lysosome
    Cell Membrane
    Mitochondria
    Vacuole
    The Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Ribosomes
    Cell Wall
    Chloroplast
    Cytoplasm

    Thanks in advance

    • ANSWER:
      I can’t write the song for you, because I don’t know enough about the subject material. And I can’t sing it for you, because… I can’t sing.

      However, there are two general melodies you can try to fit in random material (like the required subject matter.)

      Try “We Didn’t Start the Fire,” by Billy Joel. That song was catchy, popular, and widely criticized for just dropping random history facts in just because they rhymed. Well, now you can drop in random (or assigned) science facts!

      Another song you might use as a framework is any of the songs in School House Rock (you might need to rent the DVD if you weren’t of an age where they showed it between cartoons on Saturday.) Particular songs like “Conjunction Junction, what’s your function” could be converted into “Cellular subunit, how do you do it?”, then define cellular subunits as organelles. School House Rock songs often have words that are spoken, not just sung, so it allows you to make points or cover greater detail.

  16. QUESTION:
    6th grade life science?
    Life Science:
    1. Place the following body systems in order from least to greatest: cell; tissue; organ system; organ.
    2. Name all the structures fond only in a plant cell & not an animal cell.
    3. Why don’t animal cells need a cell wall?
    4. Identify the function of the following cell organelles:
    Chloroplast; endoplasmic reticulum; cell membrane; nucleus; mitochondria; cell wall
    5. List thee an examples of an organisms produced by asexual reproduction.
    6. List thee examples of organisms produced by sexual reproduction.
    7. What is a group of cells with a common structure called?
    8. List four characteristics of sexual reproduction.

    • ANSWER:
      the 1st question is Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ system.

  17. QUESTION:
    Pls help with questions.. fill in the blank 10 points?
    A (cell / molecule/ tissue) is the smallest unit displaying the properties of life. Cells small size ensures they have a large (nucleus/ surface area / membrane) to volume ratio. Cells are surrounded by a (slime layer/ cell wall / cell membrane) composed of (phospholipids / carbohydrates / amino acids). The inside of the of the phospholipids are (hydrophobic / hydrophillic / polar),which means water fearing, while the phosphate heads are water loving which means hydrophobic / hydrophillic / nonpolar).

    All organisms are composed of cells. The two major kinds of cells are (big/ prokaryote / eukaryote), which lack membrane bound organelles and a nucleus and (small/ prokaryote / eukaryote), which contain membrane bound organelles. The nucleus of eukaryotic cells is separated from the cytoplasm by a (cellular / nuclear / sticky) envelope. The hereditary material is in the nucleus. It exists as (DNA only / histones only/ chromatin) until the cell divides and then we see chromosomes.

    Also inside the nucleus is the (chromatin/ chromosomes / nucleolus) which contains ribosomal RNA.

    The eukaryotic cell contains a variety of structures in the cytoplasm. The (ribosomes / golgi apparatus / mitochondria) are the site of protein synthesis and can be free floating or attached to the ER. The ER exists in two forms. One form contains ribosomes and is termed (rough / bumby / smooth) ER and the other is lacking ribosomes and is termed (silky / smooth / rough) ER.

    The ER packages substances that are sent to the packaging house of the cell. This organelle is the (mitochondria / lysosomes / Golgi apparatus) and the vesicles from the ER will enter at the (cis / trans / curved) face and exit at the (cis / trans / curved)face. One of the main vesicles produced at the golgi apparatus is the (perioxisome /vacuole / lysosome). It contains powerful digestive enzymes to help breakdown garbage in the cell.

    Some organelles are specialized to handle energy. In both plants and animal cells, the power house of the cell is the (Golgi apparatus / mitochondria / nucleus). The mitochondria produces (ATP / AMP / electrons) through cellular respiration. ATP is the main energy molecule of our body.
    Question 2 answers

    Question 3 text Question 3 6 points Save

    Plant cells can produce their own food through a process termed (heterotrophism / cellular respiration / photosynthesis). This process occurs in the (chloroplast / cell wall / mitochondria) which contains the green pigment (carotene / chlorophyll / xylophene).

    Plant cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and a (cell wall / chitin / slime layer). The cell wall is composed of proteins and (starch / cellulose / chitin) which is a polysaccharide that we can not digest but we can write on it.

    The (skeleton / cytoskeleton / exoskeleton) of the cell helps the cell maintain its shape and also assists in movement. The three filaments are actin, microtubules and intermediate filaments.

    Question 3 answers

    • ANSWER:
      cell
      surface area
      cell membrane
      phospholipds
      hydrophobic
      hydrophillic

      prokaryote
      eukaryote
      nuclear
      chromatin

      nucleolus

      ribosomes
      rough
      smooth

      golgi apparatus
      cis
      trans
      peroxisome

      mitochondria
      ATP

      photosynthesis
      chloroplast
      chlorophyll

      cell wall
      cellulose

      cytoskeleton

  18. QUESTION:
    biology review questions?
    can u guys please answer these questions, so i can check my answers for my midterms please. Thanks, they are multiple choice.
    ignore number 17.

    1.Which cell does the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) directly attack that impairs the working of the immune system?
    A.Helper T-cells
    B.Killer T-cells
    C.Memory B-cells
    D.Macrophages

    2.The only characteristic shared by a virus and a living cell is that they both
    A.store genetic information in nucleic acids.
    B.are primitive prokaryotes without nucleii.
    C.perform respiration to obtain energy.
    D.have a cell membrane and cytoplasm.

    3.Viruses, unlike bacteria,
    A.cause diseases only in animals.
    B.can be destroyed by antibiotics.
    C.are eukaryotic, with a nucleus.
    D.can reproduce only in living cells.

    4.The major destructive result of an infection from invading viruses is
    A.release of viral toxins in the bloodstream.
    B.destruction of the cell by viral enzymes.
    C.destruction of cells by viral replication.
    D.interfering with the cell’s life functions.

    SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS IN HERBIVORES
    Figure 59

    Many plant-eating organisms, including humans and grazing animals, are unable to digest the cellulose that makes up plant cell walls. Most plant-eaters have a symbiotic relationship with a microorganism that actually digest the cellulose releasing the nutrients for the herbivore’s use.

    5.Read the information in Figure 59. Which organism lives in many herbivore intestine and aids in the digestive process?
    A.The bacterium Escherichia coli
    B.The fungus Trichophyton rubrum
    C.The protozoan Entamoeba histolytica
    D.The algae Fucus vesiculosus

    6.Read the information in Figure 59. If a grazing animal unable to digest cellulose did not have this symbiotic microorganism, what might happen to the animal?
    A.The grazer would realize that it needed to find another food source besides plants.
    B.The grazer would probably not be able to get enough nutrients to survive.
    C.Over time, evolution would occur and the grazer would adapt to new food.
    D.The grazer would find a plant to eat that did not have cellulose cell walls.

    7.Prokaryotes with a spherical shape are called
    A.bacilli.
    B.spirilla.
    C.cocci.
    D.flagella.

    8.What would prompt the body to produce immunity to a disease?
    A.antibiotics
    B.vaccines
    C.vitamin C
    D.toxins

    9.Examples of organisms that break down the nutrients in dead matter into simpler substances would be
    A.bacteria and fungi
    B.bacteria and viruses
    C.algae and fungi
    D.viruses and algae

    10.Antibiotics work by blocking the growth and reproduction of
    A.viruses only
    B.bacteria only
    C.fungi only
    D.viruses and bacteria
    E.bacteria and fungi

    11.Saprophytes and other decomposers are important in improving the quality of
    A.the water supply.
    B.topsoil layer.
    C.the atmosphere.
    D.potential energy.

    12.Which organism is used in a recombinant DNA process to produce synthetic drugs such as insulin?
    A.viruses
    B.fungi
    C.protists
    D.bacteria

    13.The algal bloom called red tide
    A.causes a tremendous increase in oxygen content.
    B.produces toxins that can harm fish and humans.
    C.forms a mutualistic relationship with shellfish.
    D.results in nitrogen-fixation in marine waters.

    14.The fungus that grows within the outer layers of human skin causes
    A.ringworm and athlete’s foot.
    B.urinary tract infections.
    C.mold and mildew.
    D.Kaposi’s sarcoma.

    15. In the symbiotic relationship of a lichen, what is the effect on the alga and the fungus?
    A. the alga is benefited and the fungus is harmed
    B. the alga is harmed and the fungus is benefited
    C. the alga is benefited and the fungus is unaffected
    D. the alga is benefited and the fungus is benefited

    16.What type of symbiosis is the relationship between plants and fungi in mycorrhizae?
    A.parasitism
    B.competition
    C.mutualism
    D.commensalism

    17.Which set below illustrates the correct association between HIV and the T-helper cell?

    A.

    B.
    C.
    D.

    18.The tetanus vaccine is a liquid containing an inactivated toxin from the tetanus bacteria. Vaccinated individuals become protected against tetanus because the inactivated toxin
    A.prevents any future viral invasions.
    B.causes an inflammatory response.
    C.promotes production of antibodies.
    D.causes illness but not fatalities.

    19.Which of the following require a host cell because they are not able to metabolize on their own?
    A.blue-green algae
    B.bacteria
    C.protist
    D.viruses

    20.Milk that you purchase in the grocery store has gone through a process where it has been heated and then cooled. The most probable reason for heating the milk would be to
    A.control pathogen growth in the milk.
    B.improve the flavor and color of the milk.
    C.reduce the percent of fat in the milk.
    D.add extra vitamin supplements.

    • ANSWER:
      1. Which cell does the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) directly attack that impairs the working of the immune system?
      > A. Helper T-cells
      B. Killer T-cells
      C. Memory B-cells
      D. Macrophages

      2. The only characteristic shared by a virus and a living cell is that they both
      > A. store genetic information in nucleic acids.
      B. are primitive prokaryotes without nucleii.
      C. perform respiration to obtain energy.
      D. have a cell membrane and cytoplasm.

      3. Viruses, unlike bacteria,
      A. cause diseases only in animals.
      B. can be destroyed by antibiotics.
      C. are eukaryotic, with a nucleus.
      > D. can reproduce only in living cells.

      4. The major destructive result of an infection from invading viruses is
      A. release of viral toxins in the bloodstream.
      B. destruction of the cell by viral enzymes.
      > C. destruction of cells by viral replication.
      D. interfering with the cell’s life functions.

      SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS IN HERBIVORES
      Figure 59
      Many plant-eating organisms, including humans and grazing animals, are unable to digest the cellulose that makes up plant cell walls. Most plant-eaters have a symbiotic relationship with a microorganism that actually digest the cellulose releasing the nutrients for the herbivore’s use.

      5. Read the information in Figure 59. Which organism lives in many herbivore intestine and aids in the digestive process?
      > A. The bacterium Escherichia coli
      B. The fungus Trichophyton rubrum
      C. The protozoan Entamoeba histolytica
      D. The algae Fucus vesiculosus

      6. Read the information in Figure 59. If a grazing animal unable to digest cellulose did not have this symbiotic microorganism, what might happen to the animal?
      > A. The grazer would realize that it needed to find another food source besides plants.
      B. The grazer would probably not be able to get enough nutrients to survive.
      C. Over time, evolution would occur and the grazer would adapt to new food.
      D. The grazer would find a plant to eat that did not have cellulose cell walls.

      7. Prokaryotes with a spherical shape are called
      A. bacilli.
      B. spirilla.
      > C. cocci.
      D. flagella.

      8. What would prompt the body to produce immunity to a disease?
      A. antibiotics
      B. vaccines
      C. vitamin C
      > D. toxins

      9. Examples of organisms that break down the nutrients in dead matter into simpler substances would be
      > A. bacteria and fungi
      B. bacteria and viruses
      C. algae and fungi
      D. viruses and algae

      10. Antibiotics work by blocking the growth and reproduction of
      A. viruses only
      B. bacteria only
      C. fungi only
      D. viruses and bacteria
      > E. bacteria and fungi

      11. Saprophytes and other decomposers are important in improving the quality of
      A. the water supply.
      > B. topsoil layer.
      C. the atmosphere.
      D. potential energy.

      12. Which organism is used in a recombinant DNA process to produce synthetic drugs such as insulin?
      A. viruses
      B. fungi
      C. protists
      > D. bacteria

      13. The algal bloom called red tide
      A. causes a tremendous increase in oxygen content.
      > B. produces toxins that can harm fish and humans.
      C. forms a mutualistic relationship with shellfish.
      D. results in nitrogen-fixation in marine waters.

      14. The fungus that grows within the outer layers of human skin causes
      > A. ringworm and athlete’s foot.
      B. urinary tract infections.
      C. mold and mildew.
      D. Kaposi’s sarcoma.

      15. In the symbiotic relationship of a lichen, what is the effect on the alga and the fungus?
      A. the alga is benefited and the fungus is harmed
      B. the alga is harmed and the fungus is benefited
      > C. the alga is benefited and the fungus is unaffected
      D. the alga is benefited and the fungus is benefited

      16. What type of symbiosis is the relationship between plants and fungi in mycorrhizae?
      A. parasitism
      B. competition
      > C. mutualism
      D. commensalism

      18. The tetanus vaccine is a liquid containing an inactivated toxin from the tetanus bacteria. Vaccinated individuals become protected against tetanus because the inactivated toxin
      > A. prevents any future viral invasions.
      B. causes an inflammatory response.
      C. promotes production of antibodies.
      D. causes illness but not fatalities.

      19. Which of the following require a host cell because they are not able to metabolize on their own?
      A. blue-green algae
      B. bacteria
      C. protist
      > D. viruses

      20. Milk that you purchase in the grocery store has gone through a process where it has been heated and then cooled. The most probable reason for heating the milk would be to
      > A. control pathogen growth in the milk.
      B. improve the flavor and color of the milk.
      C. reduce the percent of fat in the milk.
      D. add extra vitamin supplements.

  19. QUESTION:
    What is the division of cytoplasm and organelles called ?
    1) Normal cell growth and is metabolically active. (A phase of inter phase).
    2) The phase between mitotic cell division.
    3) Act as the poles in cell division in animal cells.
    4) Formed by plants and later becomes the cell wall.
    5) Points between high and low concentration form this.
    6) Continuous sequence of events in the life of a cell.
    7) Formed by cell membranes to bring in or move out large molecules or substances.

    Please help !
    Thanks in advance (:

    • ANSWER:
      Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm of a cell.

      1) G1 Phase of interphase
      2) The general term for this one would be interphase…
      3) Centromere of Chromatids – This one i’m not entirely sure about
      4) As far as I can remember, the plant’s cell walls are made of Cellulose.
      5) This one is a little vague but the only thing I can think of is that it forms a concentration gradient.
      6) Cell Cycle?
      7) This could be any number of things, but the one that rings out to me is Phagosomes, it’s where the cell membrane extends around and “eats” the molecule etc.

      I’m not sure if I answered your questions, they’re a little vague….

  20. QUESTION:
    Bio help please thank you ill rate you best i promise?
    Match the following terms and definitions.

    the basic building block of all forms of life 1( protoplasm
    the rigid wall of plant cells that surrounds the cell membrane 2(chloroplast
    the tiny body that contains chlorophyll 3(cell
    . a protein and fat structure serving as a covering and enclosure for a cell 4(nucleus
    . the protoplasmic substance separate from the cytoplasm 5(membrane
    the organic substance making up the cells of all living things 6(cell wall
    a cell storage body that increases in size with age 7(vacuole

    Biologists recognize the following levels of cell organization: _____.

    cellular, multi-cellular, organ, system, and organism
    cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organism
    cellular, tissue, system, and organism
    cellular, tissue, organ, and system

    • ANSWER:
      the basic building block of all forms of life – cell
      the rigid wall of plant cells that surrounds the cell membrane – cell wall
      the tiny body that contains chlorophyll – chloroplast
      . a protein and fat structure serving as a covering and enclosure for a cell – protoplasm
      . the protoplasmic substance separate from the cytoplasm – membrane
      the organic substance making up the cells of all living things – nucleus
      a cell storage body that increases in size with age – vacuole

      Biologists recognize the following levels of cell organization: cellular, tissue, organ, and system

  21. QUESTION:
    One last thing for Biology Help…..?
    Just some other questions these are the last for today.

    1.Studying a picture of a cell with an electron microscope, you find that the cell has a cell wall, a nucleus, and a large central vacuole. You conclude that the cell is probably a(n)

    Animal cell

    Plant cell

    Prokaryotic cell

    Bacterial cell

    2.Which cell organelle, responsible for helping build proteins, is also found in prokaryote cells because it is not surrounded by a membrane?

    Ribosome

    Chloroplast

    Lysomsome

    None of the above

    3.The collective term that describes the jellylike substance and the organelles suspended in it is the:

    Cytoskeleton

    Cytosol

    Cytoplasm

    Chloroplast

    4.Which of the following is NOT a eukaryote type cell?

    Animal cell

    Plant cell

    Protist cell

    Bacterial cell

    5.Which of the following organelles provides protection for a plant cell?

    Chloroplast

    Cytoplasm

    Cell Wall

    Chlorophyll

    6.Which of the below is not true about the cytoplasm:

    It fills the space between the nucleus and cell membrane

    It is found only in the animal cell

    Contains and supports the cell organelles

    It is full of proteins that control the cell metabolism

    7.Which of the following can be found inside the nucleus?

    Cilia

    Lysosomes

    DNA

    None of the above

    8.The _______________carries on the process of photosynthesis.

    Cell wall

    Chloroplast

    Nucleus

    Cytoplasm

    9.The term used to describe a cell part that does a specific job is ___________.

    Organ

    Cytonelle

    Organelle

    Organism

    10.Some argue that a prokaryote cell is more complex than a eukaryote cell even though it does not have all the cell parts. Which of the following best defends this argument?

    Prokaryote cells are much larger and carry out more processes.

    Prokaryote cells must do perfectly timed chemical life processes in one open space as opposed to different organelles doing their special job all the time.

    Prokaryote cells’ genetic material is not bound by a nucleus and can carry out protein synthesis faster.

    None of the above

    11.Which organelle is used for the storage of food, water or waste?

    Vacuole

    Mitochondria

    Golgi bodies

    Chloroplast

    12.The _____________ controls what enters and exits the cell and is found in all cell types.

    Mitochondria

    Cell membrane

    Ribosomes

    Cytoplasm

    13.The mitochondrion is the cell organelle responsible for _____________.

    The process of photosynthesis and making food

    The process of cellular respiration and releasing energy

    The process of digestion and waste removal

    None of the above

    14.Which of the following pairs do NOT go together?

    Animal cell – Centrioles

    Plant cell – Chloroplast

    Animal cell – Cell wall

    Plant cell – Eukaryote

    15.Which type of cell does NOT contain a nucleus?

    Skin cell

    Muscle cell

    Bacteria cell

    None of the above

    You do not have to answer them but the more you answer the more points you get. This isnt homework so don’t give me this crap of do your homework. Thank you to whoever answers these :)

    • ANSWER:
      1. Plant cell

      2. Ribosomes

      3. Cytoplasm

      4. Bacterial Cell

      5. Cell Wall

      6. It is only found in animal cells

      7. DNA

      8. Chloroplast

      9. Organelle

      10.Prokaryote cells must do perfectly timed chemical life processes in one open space as opposed to different organelles doing their special job all the time.

      11.Vacuole

      12.Cell membrane

      13.The process of cellular respiration and releasing energy

      14.Animal cell – Cell wall

      15.Bacteria cell

      (I hoped I helped if you’re having trouble understanding just ask.)

      : D

  22. QUESTION:
    SCIENCE!! HELP! PLEASEE!?
    If I do this workshheet for my brother he won’t tell my mom about the 60% I got on my Spanish quiz!! So I need to do itt. Well Im in 9th grade and he’s in 11th and we haven’t done this science stuff yet! So I don’t know it!! I know this is wrong, and I shouldn’t ask for the answers but I really need them!! Please help me!! THANK YOU SOOO MUCH! :)

    Question 1 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    The term used to describe a cell part that does a specific job is ___________.

    Organ

    Cytonelle

    Organelle

    Organism

    Question 2 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Studying a picture of a cell with an electron microscope, you find that the cell has a cell wall, a nucleus, and a large central vacuole. You conclude that the cell is probably a(n)

    Animal cell

    Plant cell

    Prokaryotic cell

    Bacterial cell

    Question 3 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    The collective term that describes the jellylike substance and the organelles suspended in it is the:

    Cytoskeleton

    Cytosol

    Cytoplasm

    Chloroplast

    Question 4 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which type of cell does NOT contain a nucleus?

    Skin cell

    Muscle cell

    Bacteria cell

    None of the above

    Question 5 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    The mitochondrion is the cell organelle responsible for _____________.

    The process of photosynthesis and making food

    The process of cellular respiration and releasing energy

    The process of digestion and waste removal

    None of the above

    Question 6 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which of the following organelles provides protection for a plant cell?

    Chloroplast

    Cytoplasm

    Cell Wall

    Chlorophyll

    Question 7 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which of the below is not true about the cytoplasm:

    It fills the space between the nucleus and cell membrane

    It is found only in the animal cell

    Contains and supports the cell organelles

    It is full of proteins that control the cell metabolism

    Question 8 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Some argue that a prokaryote cell is more complex than a eukaryote cell even though it does not have all the cell parts. Which of the following best defends this argument?

    Prokaryote cells are much larger and carry out more processes.

    Prokaryote cells must do perfectly timed chemical life processes in one open space as opposed to different organelles doing their special job all the time.

    Prokaryote cells’ genetic material is not bound by a nucleus and can carry out protein synthesis faster.

    None of the above

    Question 9 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which organelle is used for the storage of food, water or waste?

    Vacuole

    Mitochondria

    Golgi bodies

    Chloroplast

    Question 10 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    The _______________carries on the process of photosynthesis.

    Cell wall

    Chloroplast

    Nucleus

    Cytoplasm

    Question 11 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which of the following is NOT a eukaryote type cell?

    Animal cell

    Plant cell

    Protist cell

    Bacterial cell

    Question 12 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which cell organelle, responsible for helping build proteins, is also found in prokaryote cells because it is not surrounded by a membrane?

    Ribosome

    Chloroplast

    Lysosome

    None of the above

    Question 13 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    The _____________ controls what enters and exits the cell and is found in all cell types.

    Mitochondria

    Cell membrane

    Ribosomes

    Cytoplasm

    Question 14 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which of the following can be found inside the nucleus?

    Cilia

    Lysosomes

    DNA

    None of the above

    Question 15 (Multiple Choice Worth 3 points)

    Which of the following pairs do NOT go together?

    Animal cell – Centrioles

    Plant cell – Chloroplast

    Animal cell – Cell wall

    Plant cell – Eukaryote

    • ANSWER:
      Organelle
      Plant cell
      Cytoplasm
      Bacteria CellThe process of cellular respiration
      Cell Wall
      Contains and supports organelle
      Prokaryote cells must do perfectly timed chemical…
      Vacuole
      Chloroplast
      Bacterial
      Ribosome
      Cell membrane
      DNA
      Animal cell-cell wall

  23. QUESTION:
    cell city project? im doing bikini bottom need answers now! please?
    im doing a cell city project but we dont have 2 do a city we can have a choice 4 example…my friend is doing a night club and shes already done! i thought of doing bikini bottom (where spongebob lives) and i need help!
    here is what have so far
    nucleus-?
    cell membrane-?
    cytoplasm- the sea water
    vacuole- krusty krab
    mitochondia-?
    lysosome-?
    golgi bodies-?
    endoplasmic reticulim (rough and smooth)-?
    vesicle-?
    ribosome- fish (citizens of bikini bottom)
    (if im doing a plant cell….i have not yet decided)
    cell wall-
    chlroplast-

    plz and thank u
    im an a student and im finding this really hard! i need an a!
    im in 6th grade if that helps and i NEED ANSWERS NOW pplz!
    thank you
    yea the nuceus could be spongebobs house but i need an E.R. around it…
    ITS DUE MONDAY AND I HAVENT STARTED YET OMG!?!?!?!?!
    PLZ ANSWER LIKE RIGHT NOW!

    • ANSWER:
      the nucleus could be spongebob’s pineapple
      & yeah it does seem hard. isnt there any other
      ideas you could do? idk but this one just seems
      really hard.

  24. QUESTION:
    Why is a diatom a plant-like protists?
    Why is a diatom a plant-like protists?
    What is special about the cell wall of these protists?
    How is this substance used in our everyday lives?

    • ANSWER:
      It has a cell wall and may undergo photosynthesis
      Silicon in the wall
      silicon provides the structural basis for the pathways of electronic processors like the computer chip

  25. QUESTION:
    Science questions First answer gets 10 points if they are correct?
    1. Of the following, which is NOT an adaptation plants made to life on land?
    cell walls
    a cuticle
    more complex reproduction
    cell membrane

    2. Scientists think that plants evolved directly from _____.
    animals
    mosses
    bacteria
    green algae

    3. Nonvascular plants have all of the following EXCEPT _____.
    flowers
    rhizoids
    spores
    cell walls

    • ANSWER:
      1 cell membrane
      2 green algae
      3 flowers

  26. QUESTION:
    Please help with biology homework?!?
    For my bio class I have to make a cell with analogous parts! Meaning that i have to find an object that functions and should represent the following parts of a plant cell: nucleus, nuclear membrane, nucleoplasm, chromosome, nucleolus, cell membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic riticulum, golgi body, lysosome, mitochondria, ribosomes, vacuoles, cell wall and chloroplastid! Please tell me things that represent these parts of a plant cell with real life objects that function the same way! Thanks in advance!!!

    • ANSWER:

  27. QUESTION:
    BIOLOGY STUDY GUID, PLEASE HELP (:?
    In an experiment designed to test the effect of light on seed germination, which of these would MOST likely be the dependent variable?
    length of exposure to light in the experimental group
    color of the light shone on seeds in the experimental group
    number of seeds tested in the control and experimental groups
    number of seeds that germinated in control and experimental groups

    Carbon is the _________________ of organic molecules.
    least important part
    structural foundation
    optional part
    structural addition

    What occurs in an ionic bond?
    Electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
    Electrons are equally shared between atoms.
    Electrons are unequally shared between atoms.
    Electrons are absorbed into the nucleus of an atom.

    An atomic number of 8 indicates that there are _________________.
    8 neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
    4 neutrons and 4 protons in the nucleus of an atom
    8 electrons in the nucleus of an atom
    8 protons in the nucleus of an atom

    Which of these do NOT have a cell wall?
    plant cells
    animal cells
    bacteria cells
    algae cells

    If you are in an upstairs room and can smell food cooking on a stove downstairs, which process accounts for this?
    temperature changes
    permeability
    osmosis
    diffusion

    Which process uses the least energy in the cell?
    endocytosis
    osmosis
    phagocytosis
    active transport

    Which material would most likely require active transport to move through a cell membrane?
    a large protein
    distilled water
    sugar
    oxygen

    How is the structure of DNA different from the structure of RNA?
    RNA is a single strand, but DNA is a double strand.
    DNA is a single strand, but RNA is a double strand.
    RNA contains deoxyribose.
    DNA contains uracil.

    If the DNA sequence to be transcribed is ACTG, then the resulting mRNA sequence will be _______.
    TGAC
    TGUC
    GCTA
    UGAC

    Why are there 64 ways to combine 4 bases of a nucleic acid into codons?
    Codons have 3 bases, and 43 = 64.
    Codons have 8 bases, and 82 = 64.
    Codons have 64 bases.
    Codons have only 2 bases, and 26 = 64.

    Which of these is a process of photosynthesis that uses carbon dioxide?
    light reaction
    dark reaction
    Krebs cycle
    electron transport chain

    Which is the part of anaerobic respiration that produces all of the ATP gained from the breakdown of a glucose molecule?
    alcohol formation
    lactic acid formation
    acetyl-CoA formation
    glycolysis

    Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra copy of chromosome 21, resulting in a total of 47 chromosomes. Which mutative process causes this to occur?
    crossing-over
    nondisjunction
    base addition
    base deletion

    Which term BEST describes the outcome of natural selection?
    adaptation
    reproduction
    respiration
    egestion

    The discovery of which of these substances provided support for both Mendel’s laws of heredity and Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection?
    ATP
    glucose
    lipids
    DNA

    Which statement is true for BOTH mitosis and meiosis?
    The pairs of homologous chromosomes form a tetrad.
    The cells begin with a diploid number of chromosomes.
    The daughter cells that result contain the diploid number of chromosomes.
    The daughter cells formed are identical to one another.

    Which statement BEST summarizes the scientific theory of evolution?
    Life began when simple inorganic compounds underwent chemical changes caused by conditions on early Earth.
    Life that probably began somewhere else in the universe came to Earth on meteorites in the distant past.
    The diversity of life on Earth, both past and present, is the result of changes in DNA that have accumulated over time.
    The variety of living organisms, both past and present, came about because individuals changed their DNA as needed to survive.

    A female with type A blood and a male with type AB blood are having a child. What is the probability that the child will have type A blood?
    0%
    25%
    50%
    100%

    • ANSWER:
      In an experiment designed to test the effect of light on seed germination, which of these would MOST likely be the dependent variable?

      number of seeds that germinated in control and experimental groups

      Carbon is the _________________ of organic molecules.

      structural foundation

      How is the structure of DNA different from the structure of RNA?
      RNA is a single strand, but DNA is a double strand.

      If you are in an upstairs room and can smell food cooking on a stove downstairs, which process accounts for this?

      diffusion

      Which process uses the least energy in the cell?

      osmosis

      If the DNA sequence to be transcribed is ACTG, then the resulting mRNA sequence will be _______.

      UGAC

      The discovery of which of these substances provided support for both Mendel’s laws of heredity and Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection?

      DNA

      A female with type A blood and a male with type AB blood are having a child. What is the probability that the child will have type A blood?

      50%

      There’s some of them…. been outta practice for a while but those were the ones that seemed pretty easy without a double-check

  28. QUESTION:
    Biology crossword help? has to do mostly with cells?
    1. Aspecific protien recognizes certain molecules bringing them across a membrane (7 letters)

    2. Jellylike polysaccharide found in plant cell walls (6 letters and it begins with a p)

    3. Movement of molecules along an imaginary slope usually from higher to lower concentrations (8 letters)

    4.the pressure in plant cells to make them firm (6 letters)
    30. the carbohydrate producers of plant cells (8 letters)

    5.the protein believed to be involved in the movement of organelles
    within the cytoplasm (7 letters)

    6. Any of the small parts of a cell that carry out life processes (9 letters)

    ** any answer would be nice thank you =]

    • ANSWER:
      1.vacuole
      2.plasma
      3.gradient
      4.turgor
      30.pigment???
      5.tubulins or
      6.organelle
      That’s all I could figure out…LOL
      Hope this helps!

  29. QUESTION:
    Cells, all types. Answers needed :) !?
    Please help!

    1# The cell theory teaches that _____.
    A.the basic unit of life is the organism
    B.the basic unit of life is the cell
    C.all cells have the same basic structure
    D.cells are miniature reflections of the organisms from which they are taken

    2# When an animal cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, _____.
    A.it will gain water and may burst
    B.it will lose water and shrink
    C.It will remain the same size
    D.the cell’s reaction cannot be determined

    3# When the cell excretes sodium from within, against the natural tendency of matter, it is performing _____.
    A.passive diffusion
    B.facilitated diffusion
    C.active transport
    D.pinocytosis

    4# A cell is placed in a water solution with the same salt concentration as the cell. The cell is placed in a _____.
    A.hypotonic solution
    B.hypertonic solution
    C.isotonic solution

    5# One difference between human cheek cells and onion cells is _____.
    A.the presence of cytoplasm
    B.the absence of a nucleus in the onion cells
    C.the absence of a cell wall in cheek cells
    D.none of the above

    6# Plant cells derive their energy from chlorophyll.
    A.True
    B.False

    7# Blood, muscle, and bone cells are examples of _____.
    A.specialized cells
    B.tissues
    C.organs
    D.plant cells

    8# The third level of cell organization is the _____.
    A.tissue level
    B.system level
    C.organism level
    D.organ level

    9# These cells are part of the domains Archaea and Bacteria.
    A.prokaryotes
    B.eukaryotes

    10# _____ are larger cells with membrane-bounded organelles.
    A.Prokaryotes
    B.Eukaryotes

    • ANSWER:
      Easy!
      1) B
      2) A
      3) C or B
      4) isotonic
      5) C (its a plant cell)
      6) Not really
      7) specialized
      8) Organ
      9) Pro-
      10) Euk-

  30. QUESTION:
    advanced biology help!?
    Okay. So I need help on a few questions!

    do cell walls continue to grow throughout the life of a plant cell? True/ False?

    and is the dense protein rich substance within the nucleus DNA or the nucleolus?

    • ANSWER:
      1st answer-false, it only grows in the growing stages; prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase

      2nd answer- the DNA is made up of nucleic acids, so it cant be made of proteins, so the nucleolus is rich in proteins.. hope this helps ^.^

  31. QUESTION:
    Biology Study Guide Help?
    Multiple Choice
    Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

    1. In order to fit within a cell, DNA becomes more compact by
    Awrapping tightly around associated proteins.
    Bextending to form very long, thin molecules.
    Cbreaking apart into separate genes.
    Dbeing enzymatically changed into a protein.

    2. A protein disk that attaches two chromatids to each other in a chromosome is called a
    Acentriole. Bchloroplast.
    Cgamete. Dcentromere.

    3. The chromosomes in your body
    Aexist in 23 pairs.
    Binclude two sex chromosomes.
    Cinclude 44 autosomes.
    DAll of the above

    4. A student can study a karyotype to learn about the
    Amolecular structure of a chromosome.
    Bgenes that are present in a particular strand of DNA.
    Cnumber of chromosomes present in a body cell.
    Dmedical history of an individual.

    5. diploid : body cell :: haploid :
    Achromosome Breproductive cell
    Csex chromosome Dzygote

    6. The diploid number of chromosomes in a human skin cell is 46. How many chromosomes are in a human egg cell?
    A12.5 B23
    C46 D92

    7. How many chromosomes are in the body cells of an organism that has a haploid number of 8?
    A4 B8
    C16 D12

    8. The chromosome of a bacterium
    Ahas a circular shape.
    Boccurs in multiple pairs within the cell.
    Cis wrapped around proteins.
    Dis found within the nucleus.

    9. In a bacterium, cell division takes place when
    Aits nucleus divides.
    Bthe cell splits into two cells, one of which receives all of the DNA.
    Cthe DNA is copied, a new cell membrane forms between the DNA copies, and the cell splits into two cells.
    DNone of the above

    10. The stage of the cell cycle that occupies most of the cell’s life is
    Ainterphase. BG2.
    CG1. DM.

    11. The phase of mitosis that is characterized by the arrangement of all chromosomes along the equator of the cell is called
    Atelophase. Bmetaphase.
    Cprophase. Danaphase.

    12. A spindle fiber is a specialized form of
    Aflagellum. Bcilium.
    Cmicrotubule. Dchromosome.

    16. As a result of mitosis, each of the two new cells produced from the original cell during cytokinesis
    Areceives exactly half the chromosomes from the original cell.
    Bdonates a chromosome to the original cell.
    Creceives a few chromosomes from the original cell.
    Dreceives an exact copy of all the chromosomes present in the original cell.

    17. 5 : cell cycle ::
    A6 : prophase B9 : cytokinesis
    C4 : mitosis D3 : meiosis

    18. In plant cells, cytokinesis occurs when
    Aspindle fibers are formed.
    Ba new cell wall forms.
    Cthe chromosomes make exact copies of themselves.
    Dosmotic pressure is too low.

    19. Which of the following statements is true?
    ACytokinesis differs in plant cells and animal cells.
    BAnimal cells form new cell walls when they divide.
    CProkaryotes divide by mitosis.
    DEukaryotes have circular chromosomes.

    20. Separation of homologues occurs during
    Amitosis. Bmeiosis I.
    Cfertilization. Dmeiosis II.

    21. The difference between anaphase of mitosis and anaphase I of meiosis is that
    Acentromeres do not exist in anaphase I.
    Bchromatids do not separate at the centromere in anaphase I.
    Cthe chromosomes line up at the equator in anaphase I.
    Dcrossing-over occurs only in anaphase of mitosis.

    24. When crossing-over takes place, chromosomes
    Aproduce new genes.
    Bdecrease in number.
    Cmutate in the first division.
    Dexchange corresponding segments of DNA.

    25. The exchange of segments of DNA between the members of a pair of chromosomes
    Ais called crossing.
    Balways produces genetic disorders.
    Censures that variation within a species never occurs.
    Dacts as a source of variations within a species.

    • ANSWER:
      I think I know a few, I don’t know too much about cell division though (or rather I keep forgetting it).
      1A
      2D
      3D?
      5B
      6B
      7C
      8A
      9C?
      10A
      12C
      16D
      18C?
      19C
      24D
      25A

  32. QUESTION:
    Make me a Concept map! 10 points to best.?
    Make me a biology concept map using the following words:
    Cells
    No Nucleus
    Plants
    Cell Wall
    Cytoplasm
    Many Smaller Vacuoles
    Basic Unit of Life
    Yes Nucleus
    Protists
    Mitochondria
    Free Floating DNA
    Cell Type
    Animal
    Ribosomes
    Cell Membrane
    Eukaryotic
    Bacteria
    Prokaryotic
    Fungus
    Chloroplast
    One large vacuole
    Phospholipids & Proteins

    One concept map. 2 ONLY IS necessary.

    • ANSWER:
      Oops!
      Please pardon the interruption, Professor…I thought this was YQ&A.. Please excuse.

  33. QUESTION:
    Of following, which is NOT an adaptation plants made to life on land?
    a. cell walls
    b. a cuticle
    c. more complex reproduction
    d. cell membrane

    • ANSWER:
      d. cell membrane.

  34. QUESTION:
    I cant find these answers, please help for bio test, sorry theres alot…?
    1) a diploid cell is one that…
    2)in bacterium, cell division takes place when?
    3)the stage of the cell cycle that occupies mose of the cell’s life is?
    4)which of the following shows the correct sequence of the cells life?
    5)growth : G ::
    6)metaphase : prophase ::
    7)the phase of mitosis that is characterized by the arrangement of all chromosomes along the equator of the cell is called?
    8)a spindle form is a speciazed form of?
    9)5 : cell cycle ::
    10)in plant cells, cytokinesis occurs when?
    11)mitosis is a process by which?
    12)which is true?
    A. prokaryotes divide by mitosis. B.eukaryotes have circular chromosomes. C.animal cells for new cell walls when they divide. D.cytokinesis differs in plant cells and animal cells.
    13)seperation of homolougous occurs during?
    14)when crossing-over takes place, chromosomes do what?
    15)in mitosis, anaphase follows______________
    16)during cell division, plant cells form a new____________ in the center of the cell
    17)in eukaryotic cells, ____________takes place after the nucleus divides.
    18) As a result of spermatogenesis, four cells are produced that can all develop into sperm cells, as a result of oogenesis, only____________ cell(s) develop(s) into an egg cell(s)
    19)control of the cell cycle occurs at three main_____

    Dont say im lazy of stupid, ive already done about 50.. i cant find these, these are the ones ive skipped.

    • ANSWER:
      This is confusing!! I can’t even see the choices … sorry!! :(

  35. QUESTION:
    Please help me, i need these answers tonight!?
    I cant find these answers, please help for bio test, sorry theres alot…?
    1) a diploid cell is one that…
    2)in bacterium, cell division takes place when?
    3)the stage of the cell cycle that occupies mose of the cell’s life is?
    4)which of the following shows the correct sequence of the cells life?
    5)growth : G ::
    6)metaphase : prophase ::
    7)the phase of mitosis that is characterized by the arrangement of all chromosomes along the equator of the cell is called?
    8)a spindle form is a speciazed form of?
    9)5 : cell cycle ::
    10)in plant cells, cytokinesis occurs when?
    11)mitosis is a process by which?
    12)which is true?
    A. prokaryotes divide by mitosis. B.eukaryotes have circular chromosomes. C.animal cells for new cell walls when they divide. D.cytokinesis differs in plant cells and animal cells.
    13)seperation of homolougous occurs during?
    14)when crossing-over takes place, chromosomes do what?
    15)in mitosis, anaphase follows______________
    16)during cell division, plant cells form a new____________ in the center of the cell
    17)in eukaryotic cells, ____________takes place after the nucleus divides.
    18) As a result of spermatogenesis, four cells are produced that can all develop into sperm cells, as a result of oogenesis, only____________ cell(s) develop(s) into an egg cell(s)
    19)control of the cell cycle occurs at three main_____

    Dont say im lazy of stupid, ive already done about 50.. i cant find these, these are the ones ive skipped.
    I have searched, and if you had read, it is biology. im in 9th grade.. i was able to answer a little over 50.. im stuck.

    • ANSWER:
      y dont u search it up because we don’t know what kind of homewrok it is well we know what it is but we don’t what grade.

  36. QUESTION:
    Seed plant questions for biology, come on insight kidds…need sum help plz?!?
    1. Which is not an adaptive advantage of a seed plant?
    A. Pollen that allows a seed plant to reproduce without free-standing water
    B. Pollen that provides food for bees and other insects
    C. Seeds that nourish and protect the plant embryo
    D. Seeds that allow plants to disperse to new places

    2. Which plants lack a vascular system?
    A. Ferns
    B. Gymnosperms
    C. Angiosperms
    D. Mosses

    3. Which plants do not depend on free-standing water to carry sperm to eggs?
    A. Mosses
    B. Ferns
    C. Club mosses
    D. Seed plants

    4. Which plant group produces fruits?
    A. Angiosperms
    B. Gymnosperms
    C. Cycads
    D. Conifers

    5. Which of the following is a characteristic of conifers?
    A. Fruits
    B. Needlelike leaves
    C. Flowers
    D. Rhizomes

    6. Why is pollination in angiosperms more efficient than in gymnosperms?
    A. Angiosperms produce more pollen than do gymnosperms.
    B. Animals help transfer pollen directly from flower to flower in many angiosperms.
    C. Pollen is transferred directly from cone to cone in gymnosperms.
    D. Wind is an efficient pollinator.

    7. Which adaptation gives flowering plants an evolutionary advantage?
    A. Insects carry seeds from place to place when they gather nectar.
    B. Small animals eat seeds and digest the tough seed covering.
    C. Burrs on seeds prevent animals from eating them.
    D. Animals are attracted to sweet fruits and disperse the seeds they contain.

    8. Which flowering-plant group is correctly paired with a characteristic?
    A. Monocot: flower parts in multiples of four or five
    B. Monocot: ringed vascular tissue
    C. Dicot: netlike veins
    D. Dicot: scattered vascular tissue

    9. What is true about woody plant stems?
    A. Their cells have walls containing a lot of lignin and cellulose.
    B. They are herbaceous.
    C. Their cells contain wood.
    D. They have stiff stems and flexible branches.

    10. What occurs during the first year of a biennial plant’s life cycle?
    A. Flowers and seeds are made
    B. Fruits are produced
    C. A short stem, leaves close to the ground, and underground food reserves are made
    D. A tall stem and many leaves are formed

    • ANSWER:
      1. B; insects don’t eat pollen, they eat nectar
      2. D; mosses are bryophytes which don’t have vascular systems
      3. D; all the other plants use spores to disperse which require water
      4. A; angiosperms are the only plants that make flowers and fruit
      5. D; conifers are pine trees, they have needles
      6. B; none of the other answers make sense
      7. D; insects don’t carry seeds, they carry pollen; small animals digesting the outer covering of the seed would digest the seed too; preventing animals from eating the seeds inhibits seed dispersal; D is the only one that makes sense
      8. C; monocots have parallel venation and have scattered vascular tissue, dicots have netlike venation and ringed vascular tissue
      9. A; woody plants are not herbaceous, cells don’t “contain” wood, and the last answer is not always correct
      10. C; biennials grow for the first year, then lay dormant

  37. QUESTION:
    The Interdependence of Life?
    1. Ancient seedless plants compacted and eventually turned into the ____ we use today. (1 point)
    coal
    oil
    minerals
    rubber
    2. Of the following, which is NOT a characteristic of plants? (1 point)
    have cell walls
    have roots
    range in height
    live only on land
    3. Nonvascular plants include ____. (1 point)
    ferns and horsetails
    horsetails and mosses
    liverworts and ferns
    mosses and liverworts
    4. ____ is a chemical compound that forms tangled fibers in the cell walls of plants. (1 point)
    Stomata
    Cambium
    Cellulose
    Cuticle
    5. Of the following, which is NOT an example of a seed plant? (1 point)
    peanuts
    peat moss
    oranges
    wheat
    6. The most common type of plants on Earth is ____. (1 point)
    angiosperms
    gymnosperms
    nonvascular plants
    seedless vascular plants
    7. The major function of leaves is to ____. (1 point)
    make food
    store food
    transport
    absorb nutrients
    8. Decaying matter found in soil is called ____. (1 point)
    humus
    nitrogen
    abiotic
    photosynthesis
    9. Which of the following eats consumers? (1 point)
    carnivore
    herbivore
    bacteria
    fungi
    10. Which is a more complete model of feeding relationships? (1 point)
    protein building
    food map
    food web
    food chain
    11. Which is a single individual from a population? (1 point)
    organism
    ecosystem
    community
    niche
    12. Drought, fewer plants, and fewer nesting sites are examples of ____ factors. (1 point)
    biotic
    abiotic
    limiting
    carrying
    13. Which of the following would help conserve natural resources? (1 point)
    using solar panels
    recycling plastic bottles
    ridding the environment of harmful pollutants
    all of the above
    14. Of the following, which is a nonrenewable natural resource? (1 point)
    phosphorus
    wood
    cotton
    water

    15. Arrow C in Figure 19-1 is best described as ____. (1 point)
    solar radiation
    carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
    heat trapped near Earth’s surface
    chlorofluorocarbons
    16. Figure 19-1 represents the ____. (1 point)
    photovoltaic cell
    greenhouse effect
    use of hydroelectric power
    use of nuclear energy
    17. Most air pollution results from ____. (1 point)
    the burning of fossil fuels
    nuclear energy use
    volcanic eruptions
    the evaporation of chemicals such as paints and dry-cleaning fluid
    18. An advantage of nuclear energy is that ____. (1 point)
    uranium is a nonrenewable resource
    it does not contribute to air pollution
    it makes use of the wind
    it makes use of hot water from geysers
    19. Explain how groundwater can become polluted. (3 points)

    20. Why is conservation important today? (3 points)

    21. You notice green scum floating on the surface of a pond. How can you tell whether these organisms are plants?

    • ANSWER:
      You copied the whole test! I have this test too the same one! Get a life.

  38. QUESTION:
    Which is not an adaptive advantage of a seed plant? Pleasee help! Bio is soo hard!?
    Which is not an adaptive advantage of a seed plant?
    A. Pollen that allows a seed plant to reproduce without free-standing water
    B. Pollen that provides food for bees and other insects
    C. Seeds that nourish and protect the plant embryo
    D. Seeds that allow plants to disperse to new places

    2. Which plants lack a vascular system?
    A. Ferns
    B. Gymnosperms
    C. Angiosperms
    D. Mosses

    3. Which plants do not depend on free-standing water to carry sperm to eggs?
    A. Mosses
    B. Ferns
    C. Club mosses
    D. Seed plants

    4. Which plant group produces fruits?
    A. Angiosperms
    B. Gymnosperms
    C. Cycads
    D. Conifers

    5. Which of the following is a characteristic of conifers?
    A. Fruits
    B. Needlelike leaves
    C. Flowers
    D. Rhizomes

    6. Why is pollination in angiosperms more efficient than in gymnosperms?
    A. Angiosperms produce more pollen than do gymnosperms.
    B. Animals help transfer pollen directly from flower to flower in many angiosperms.
    C. Pollen is transferred directly from cone to cone in gymnosperms.
    D. Wind is an efficient pollinator.

    7. Which adaptation gives flowering plants an evolutionary advantage?
    A. Insects carry seeds from place to place when they gather nectar.
    B. Small animals eat seeds and digest the tough seed covering.
    C. Burrs on seeds prevent animals from eating them.
    D. Animals are attracted to sweet fruits and disperse the seeds they contain.

    8. Which flowering-plant group is correctly paired with a characteristic?
    A. Monocot: flower parts in multiples of four or five
    B. Monocot: ringed vascular tissue
    C. Dicot: netlike veins
    D. Dicot: scattered vascular tissue

    9. What is true about woody plant stems?
    A. Their cells have walls containing a lot of lignin and cellulose.
    B. They are herbaceous.
    C. Their cells contain wood.
    D. They have stiff stems and flexible branches.

    10. What occurs during the first year of a biennial plant’s life cycle?
    A. Flowers and seeds are made
    B. Fruits are produced
    C. A short stem, leaves close to the ground, and underground food reserves are made
    D. A tall stem and many leaves are formed

    pleaseee helpp!!! Biology is SOOO hard.

    • ANSWER:
      1b
      2d
      3d
      4a
      5b
      6b
      7d
      8c
      9a
      10c

  39. QUESTION:
    Which is not an adaptive advantage of a seed plant?
    A.Pollen that allows a seed plant to reproduce without free-standing water
    B.Pollen that provides food for bees and other insects
    C.Seeds that nourish and protect the plant embryo
    D.Seeds that allow plants to disperse to new places

    2.Which plants lack a vascular system?
    A.Ferns
    B.Gymnosperms
    C.Angiosperms
    D.Mosses

    3.Which plants do not depend on free-standing water to carry sperm to eggs?
    A.Mosses
    B.Ferns
    C.Club mosses
    D.Seed plants

    4.Which plant group produces fruits?
    A.Angiosperms
    B.Gymnosperms
    C.Cycads
    D.Conifers

    5.Which of the following is a characteristic of conifers?
    A.Fruits
    B.Needlelike leaves
    C.Flowers
    D.Rhizomes

    6.Why is pollination in angiosperms more efficient than in gymnosperms?
    A.Angiosperms produce more pollen than do gymnosperms.
    B.Animals help transfer pollen directly from flower to flower in many angiosperms.
    C.Pollen is transferred directly from cone to cone in gymnosperms.
    D.Wind is an efficient pollinator.

    7.Which adaptation gives flowering plants an evolutionary advantage?
    A.Insects carry seeds from place to place when they gather nectar.
    B.Small animals eat seeds and digest the tough seed covering.
    C.Burrs on seeds prevent animals from eating them.
    D.Animals are attracted to sweet fruits and disperse the seeds they contain.

    8.Which flowering-plant group is correctly paired with a characteristic?
    A.Monocot: flower parts in multiples of four or five
    B.Monocot: ringed vascular tissue
    C.Dicot: netlike veins
    D.Dicot: scattered vascular tissue

    9.What is true about woody plant stems?
    A.Their cells have walls containing a lot of lignin and cellulose.
    B.They are herbaceous.
    C.Their cells contain wood.
    D.They have stiff stems and flexible branches.

    10.What occurs during the first year of a biennial plant’s life cycle?
    A.Flowers and seeds are made
    B.Fruits are produced
    C.A short stem, leaves close to the ground, and underground food reserves are made
    D.A tall stem and many leaves are formed

    • ANSWER:
      1) B.
      Pollen is not food; it’s the sperm that happens to brush onto the coats of bees & insects.

      2) D.
      These 4 answer choices can be grouped into 2 divisions: Bryophyta (non-vascular plants) = Moss. and Tracheophyta (vascular plants) = Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms.

      3) D.
      See #1

      4) A.
      The final division between seed plants is Gymnosperms (non-flowering plants) & Angiosperms (flowering plants). Only flowering plants produce fruit.

      5) B
      The other 3 are characteristic of different divisions.

      6) B
      Wind can’t carry pollen as far as animals can.

      7) D
      The other 3 are just plain false.

      8) C
      Monocots have scattered vascular tissue, parallel veins, and flower parts in multiples of 3.
      Dicots have a ringed vascular tissue, netted veins, and flower parts in 4 or 5.

      9) A
      The cells in the cell wall are sclerenchyma cells, which contains lots of lignin for structural support.
      All cell walls contain cellulose.

      10) C
      From Wikipedia:
      “A biennial plant is a flowering plant that takes two years to complete its biological lifecycle. In the first year the plant grows leaves, stems, and roots (vegetative structures), then it enters a period of dormancy over the colder months. Usually the stem remains very short and the leaves are low to the ground, forming a rosette. Many biennials require a cold treatment, or vernalization, before they will flower. During the next spring or summer, the stem of the biennial plant elongates greatly, or “bolts”. The plant then flowers, producing fruits and seeds before it finally dies. There are far fewer biennials than either perennial plants or annual plants.”

  40. QUESTION:
    Help……. Biology?
    6.Cells that line the trachea have many small hairlike structures that move fluids along the cells. What are the name of these structures?

    a. cilia

    b. flagella

    c. microtubules

    d. microfilaments

    7.Which of the following molecules will diffuse freely across the plasma membrane?

    a. DNA

    b. water

    c. starch

    d. protein hormones

    8.An active muscle cell will contain a large number of __________.

    a. cilia

    b. vacuoles

    c. mitochondria

    d. chloroplasts

    9.What cell structure forms the outer boundary of plant cells?

    a. cell wall

    b. plasma membrane

    c. endoplasmic reticulum

    d. nuclear membrane

    10.Which of the following is part of the cell theory?

    a. The cell is the basic unit of life.

    b. All organisms are made of cells.

    c. All cells came from preexisting cells.

    d. All of the above.

    • ANSWER:
      6)A
      7)B
      8)C
      9)A
      10)

  41. QUESTION:
    please help with biology?
    1.
    How are fungi different from plants?
    A) Plant cell walls are made of chitin; fungal cell walls contain cellulose.
    B) Plants reproduce asexually by hyphae.
    C) Plants are autotrophic; fungi are not.
    D) Plants get food by absorbing it from their environment.
    2.
    Which of the following protists forms parasitic relationships with other organisms?
    A) Water molds
    B) Cellular slime molds
    C) Plasmodial slime molds
    D) Amoeba-like slime mold
    3.
    In which group of fungi are yeasts classified?
    A) Sac fungi
    B) Primitive fungi
    C) Bread molds
    D) Club fungi
    4.
    How are funguslike protists similar to fungi?
    A) Both are decomposers.
    B) Both can move during part of their life cycle.
    C) Both form a plasmodium.
    D) Both consist of a single cell with many nuclei.
    5.
    What term describes the mutualistic relationship between fungi and the roots of certain plants?
    A) Mycorrhizae
    B) Mycelium
    C) Sporangia
    D) Fruiting body
    6.
    In which group of fungi are mushrooms classified?
    A) Sac fungi
    B) Club fungi
    C) Primitive fungi
    D) Bread molds

    • ANSWER:
      1. C
      2. A
      3. A
      4. A
      5. A
      6. B

  42. QUESTION:
    Biology Questions…from a 100 questions test. I need help with 6 please!!?
    1.Which of the following protists forms parasitic relationships with other organisms?
    A) Water molds
    B) Cellular slime molds
    C) Plasmodial slime molds
    D) Amoeba-like slime mold

    2.In which group of fungi are yeasts classified?
    A) Sac fungi
    B) Primitive fungi
    C) Bread molds
    D) Club fungi

    3.How are funguslike protists similar to fungi?
    A) Both are decomposers.
    B) Both can move during part of their life cycle.
    C) Both form a plasmodium.
    D) Both consist of a single cell with many nuclei.

    4.How are fungi different from plants?
    A) Plant cell walls are made of chitin; fungal cell walls contain cellulose.
    B) Plants reproduce asexually by hyphae.
    C) Plants are autotrophic; fungi are not.
    D) Plants get food by absorbing it from their environment.

    5.What term describes the mutualistic relationship between fungi and the roots of certain plants?
    A) Mycorrhizae
    B) Mycelium
    C) Sporangia
    D) Fruiting body

    6.In which group of fungi are mushrooms classified?
    A) Sac fungi
    B) Club fungi
    C) Primitive fungi
    D) Bread molds

    • ANSWER:
      1) A – Water molds (such as water damage in homes are horrible for us)

      2) A- sac fungi.

      3) A – Both are decomposers

      4) C – Plants are autotrophic; fungi are not.

      5) NOT C or D as they are the parts of a fungus. B – Mycellium (the only word that I can recall)

      6) B – Club Fungi

      1, 3 and 5 are not 100% sure, but I chose them through the process of elimination.

  43. QUESTION:
    plese help with this test any help is highly helpful. It’s in biology?
    1.
    What term describes the mutualistic relationship between fungi and the roots of certain plants?
    A) Mycorrhizae
    B) Mycelium
    C) Sporangia
    D) Fruiting body
    2.
    How are funguslike protists similar to fungi?
    A) Both are decomposers.
    B) Both can move during part of their life cycle.
    C) Both form a plasmodium.
    D) Both consist of a single cell with many nuclei.
    3.
    In which group of fungi are mushrooms classified?
    A) Sac fungi
    B) Club fungi
    C) Primitive fungi
    D) Bread molds
    4.
    How are fungi different from plants?
    A) Plant cell walls are made of chitin; fungal cell walls contain cellulose.
    B) Plants reproduce asexually by hyphae.
    C) Plants are autotrophic; fungi are not.
    D) Plants get food by absorbing it from their environment.
    5.
    In which group of fungi are yeasts classified?
    A) Sac fungi
    B) Primitive fungi
    C) Bread molds
    D) Club fungi
    6.
    Which of the following protists forms parasitic relationships with other organisms?
    A) Water molds
    B) Cellular slime molds
    C) Plasmodial slime molds
    D) Amoeba-like slime mold

    • ANSWER:

  44. QUESTION:
    Biology help plz… thanks i appreciate it :)?
    The cell theory states that all organisms are made of cells; cells are the most basic unit of life; and
    A) all existing cells form by free-cell formation.
    B) all cells are eukaryotic.
    C) all existing cells are produced by other living cells.
    D) all cells have a nucleus.
    2. What is the term for the jellylike substance that is contained inside the cell membrane?
    A) Cytoplasm
    B) DNA
    C) Organelle
    D) Nucleus
    3. Unlike a eukaryotic cell, a prokaryotic cell does not have
    A) DNA.
    B) a cell membrane.
    C) cytoplasm.
    D) a nucleus.
    4. Which of the following is a network of proteins that supports and gives shape to a cell?
    A) Vesicles
    B) Vacuole
    C) Cytoskeleton
    D) Cytoplasm
    5. Which of the following organelles can be found in the cytoplasm and on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum?
    A) Mitochondria
    B) Centrosomes
    C) Ribosomes
    D) Centrioles
    6. Which organelle contains enzymes that break down damaged cell parts?
    A) Centriole
    B) Lysosomes
    C) Vacuole
    D) Mitochondria
    7. What are the main differences between plant and animal cells?
    A) Animal cells are eukaryotes and plant cells are not.
    B) Plant cells are eukaryotes and animal cells are not.
    C) Animal cells have cell walls and chloroplasts; plant cells do not.
    D) Plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts; animal cells do not.
    8. Cell membranes are constructed mainly of
    A) phospholipid bilayers.
    B) protein pumps.
    C) carbohydrate gates.
    D) free-moving proteins.
    9. Why do phospholipids form a double layer?
    A) To only allow foreign molecules to cross the cell membrane
    B) To allow for no materials to cross the cell membrane
    C) To not allow the cells to maintain homeostasis
    D) To allow for selective permeability
    10. Which phrase best describes the property of selective permeability?
    A) Some molecules pass
    B) All ions pass
    C) Large molecules pass
    D) All molecules pass
    11. A ligand produces a response in a cell if it finds the right kind of
    A) carbohydrate.
    B) hormone.
    C) membrane.
    D) receptor.
    12. A protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action to a response across the cell membrane is called a
    A) carbohydrate.
    B) hormone.
    C) membrane.
    D) receptor.
    13. Which phrase best describes passive transport?
    A) Requires transport proteins
    B) Requires no energy from the cell
    C) Requires an isotonic solution
    D) Requires facilitation by enzymes
    14. Water moves into a cell when the solution surrounding the cell is
    A) hypertonic.
    B) hypotonic.
    C) isotonic.
    D) concentrated.
    15. What is the term for the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane?
    A) Osmosis
    B) Equilibrium
    C) Transport
    D) Isotonic
    16. The movement of molecules down a concentration gradient through transport proteins in the cell membrane is a type of
    A) selective transport.
    B) osmosis.
    C) energy expenditure.
    D) facilitated diffusion.
    17. The difference in the concentration of dissolved particles from one location to another is called a
    A) concentration gradient.
    B) concentrated solution.
    C) saline solution.
    D) dynamic gradient.
    18. Unlike passive transport, active transport requires
    A) concentration gradients.
    B) diffusion.
    C) energy from the cell.
    D) vesicles.
    19. Which process uses proteins to move molecules against a concentration gradient?
    A) Active transport
    B) Passive transport
    C) Endocytosis
    D) Phagocytosis
    20. Cells use active transport proteins to
    A) obtain molecules they need.
    B) break down molecules.
    C) engulf large particles.
    D) detect the charge of molecules.
    21. A membrane-bound sac used to transport substances into and out of cells is a
    A) pump.
    B) macrophage.
    C) lysosome.
    D) vesicle.
    22. Which invention played the biggest role in the discovery of cells by early scientists?
    A) Magnifying glass
    B) Lens
    C) Eyeglasses
    D) Compound microscope
    23. Specialized structures that work together inside a cell are called
    A) organelles.
    B) prokaryotes.
    C) eukaryotes.
    D) nuclei.
    24. What is the main function of the Golgi apparatus?
    A) Communicate with other cells
    B) Convert solar energy to chemical energy
    C) Process and deliver proteins
    D) Copy genetic material
    25. Which word best describes the structure of the cell membrane?
    A) Layered
    B) Rigid
    C) Impermeable
    D) Nonpolar

    • ANSWER:
      My goodness.

      1. C
      2. A
      3. D
      4. ?
      5. ?
      6. B
      7. C
      8. A
      9. D
      10. A
      11. ?
      12. ?
      13. B
      14. A
      15. A
      16. C
      17. A
      18. C
      19. A
      20. ?
      21. ?
      22. D
      23. A
      24. C
      25. A

  45. QUESTION:
    answer these Biology Questions?
    1.
    The cell theory states that all organisms are made of cells; cells are the most basic unit of life; and
    A) all existing cells form by free-cell formation.
    B) all cells are eukaryotic.
    C) all existing cells are produced by other living cells.
    D) all cells have a nucleus.
    2.
    What is the term for the jellylike substance that is contained inside the cell membrane?
    A) Cytoplasm
    B) DNA
    C) Organelle
    D) Nucleus
    3.
    Unlike a eukaryotic cell, a prokaryotic cell does not have
    A) DNA.
    B) a cell membrane.
    C) cytoplasm.
    D) a nucleus.
    4.
    Which of the following is a network of proteins that supports and gives shape to a cell?
    A) Vesicles
    B) Vacuole
    C) Cytoskeleton
    D) Cytoplasm
    5.
    Which of the following organelles can be found in the cytoplasm and on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum?
    A) Mitochondria
    B) Centrosomes
    C) Ribosomes
    D) Centrioles
    6.
    Which organelle contains enzymes that break down damaged cell parts?
    A) Centriole
    B) Lysosomes
    C) Vacuole
    D) Mitochondria
    7.
    What are the main differences between plant and animal cells?
    A) Animal cells are eukaryotes and plant cells are not.
    B) Plant cells are eukaryotes and animal cells are not.
    C) Animal cells have cell walls and chloroplasts; plant cells do not.
    D) Plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts; animal cells do not.
    8.
    Cell membranes are constructed mainly of
    A) phospholipid bilayers.
    B) protein pumps.
    C) carbohydrate gates.
    D) free-moving proteins.
    9.
    Why do phospholipids form a double layer?
    A) To only allow foreign molecules to cross the cell membrane
    B) To allow for no materials to cross the cell membrane
    C) To not allow the cells to maintain homeostasis
    D) To allow for selective permeability
    10.
    Which phrase best describes the property of selective permeability?
    A) Some molecules pass
    B) All ions pass
    C) Large molecules pass
    D) All molecules pass
    11.
    A ligand produces a response in a cell if it finds the right kind of
    A) carbohydrate.
    B) hormone.
    C) membrane.
    D) receptor.
    12.
    A protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action to a response across the cell membrane is called a
    A) carbohydrate.
    B) hormone.
    C) membrane.
    D) receptor.
    13.
    Which phrase best describes passive transport?
    A) Requires transport proteins
    B) Requires no energy from the cell
    C) Requires an isotonic solution
    D) Requires facilitation by enzymes
    14.
    Water moves into a cell when the solution surrounding the cell is
    A) hypertonic.
    B) hypotonic.
    C) isotonic.
    D) concentrated.
    15.
    What is the term for the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane?
    A) Osmosis
    B) Equilibrium
    C) Transport
    D) Isotonic
    16.
    The movement of molecules down a concentration gradient through transport proteins in the cell membrane is a type of
    A) selective transport.
    B) osmosis.
    C) energy expenditure.
    D) facilitated diffusion.
    17.
    The difference in the concentration of dissolved particles from one location to another is called a
    A) concentration gradient.
    B) concentrated solution.
    C) saline solution.
    D) dynamic gradient.
    18.
    Unlike passive transport, active transport requires
    A) concentration gradients.
    B) diffusion.
    C) energy from the cell.
    D) vesicles.
    19.
    Which process uses proteins to move molecules against a concentration gradient?
    A) Active transport
    B) Passive transport
    C) Endocytosis
    D) Phagocytosis
    20.
    Cells use active transport proteins to
    A) obtain molecules they need.
    B) break down molecules.
    C) engulf large particles.
    D) detect the charge of molecules.
    21.
    A membrane-bound sac used to transport substances into and out of cells is a
    A) pump.
    B) macrophage.
    C) lysosome.
    D) vesicle.
    22.
    Which invention played the biggest role in the discovery of cells by early scientists?
    A) Magnifying glass
    B) Lens
    C) Eyeglasses
    D) Compound microscope
    23.
    Specialized structures that work together inside a cell are called
    A) organelles.
    B) prokaryotes.
    C) eukaryotes.
    D) nuclei.
    24.
    What is the main function of the Golgi apparatus?
    A) Communicate with other cells
    B) Convert solar energy to chemical energy
    C) Process and deliver proteins
    D) Copy genetic material
    25.
    Which word best describes the structure of the cell membrane?
    A) Layered
    B) Rigid
    C) Impermeable
    D) Nonpolar

    • ANSWER:
      You should really do your hw your self, you’re never going to learn this way

      1. C
      2. A
      3. D
      4. C
      5. C
      6. B
      7. D
      8. A
      9. D
      10. A
      11. D
      12. D
      13. B
      14. B
      15. A
      16. D
      17. A
      18. C
      19. A
      20. A
      21. D
      22. D
      23. A
      24. C
      25. A

  46. QUESTION:
    need help with a biology assignment?
    1. The cell theory states that all organisms are made of cells; cells are the most basic unit of life; and
    A) all existing cells form by free-cell formation.
    B) all cells are eukaryotic.
    C) all existing cells are produced by other living cells.
    D) all cells have a nucleus.
    2. What is the term for the jellylike substance that is contained inside the cell membrane?
    A) Cytoplasm
    B) DNA
    C) Organelle
    D) Nucleus
    3. Unlike a eukaryotic cell, a prokaryotic cell does not have
    A) DNA.
    B) a cell membrane.
    C) cytoplasm.
    D) a nucleus.
    4. Which of the following is a network of proteins that supports and gives shape to a cell?
    A) Vesicles
    B) Vacuole
    C) Cytoskeleton
    D) Cytoplasm
    5. Which of the following organelles can be found in the cytoplasm and on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum?
    A) Mitochondria
    B) Centrosomes
    C) Ribosomes
    D) Centrioles
    6. Which organelle contains enzymes that break down damaged cell parts?
    A) Centriole
    B) Lysosomes
    C) Vacuole
    D) Mitochondria
    7. What are the main differences between plant and animal cells?
    A) Animal cells are eukaryotes and plant cells are not.
    B) Plant cells are eukaryotes and animal cells are not.
    C) Animal cells have cell walls and chloroplasts; plant cells do not.
    D) Plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts; animal cells do not.
    8. Cell membranes are constructed mainly of
    A) phospholipid bilayers.
    B) protein pumps.
    C) carbohydrate gates.
    D) free-moving proteins.
    9. Why do phospholipids form a double layer?
    A) To only allow foreign molecules to cross the cell membrane
    B) To allow for no materials to cross the cell membrane
    C) To not allow the cells to maintain homeostasis
    D) To allow for selective permeability
    10. Which phrase best describes the property of selective permeability?
    A) Some molecules pass
    B) All ions pass
    C) Large molecules pass
    D) All molecules pass
    11. A ligand produces a response in a cell if it finds the right kind of
    A) carbohydrate.
    B) hormone.
    C) membrane.
    D) receptor.
    12. A protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action to a response across the cell membrane is called a
    A) carbohydrate.
    B) hormone.
    C) membrane.
    D) receptor.
    13. Which phrase best describes passive transport?
    A) Requires transport proteins
    B) Requires no energy from the cell
    C) Requires an isotonic solution
    D) Requires facilitation by enzymes
    14. Water moves into a cell when the solution surrounding the cell is
    A) hypertonic.
    B) hypotonic.
    C) isotonic.
    D) concentrated.
    15. What is the term for the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane?
    A) Osmosis
    B) Equilibrium
    C) Transport
    D) Isotonic
    16. The movement of molecules down a concentration gradient through transport proteins in the cell membrane is a type of
    A) selective transport.
    B) osmosis.
    C) energy expenditure.
    D) facilitated diffusion.
    17. The difference in the concentration of dissolved particles from one location to another is called a
    A) concentration gradient.
    B) concentrated solution.
    C) saline solution.
    D) dynamic gradient.
    18. Unlike passive transport, active transport requires
    A) concentration gradients.
    B) diffusion.
    C) energy from the cell.
    D) vesicles.
    19. Which process uses proteins to move molecules against a concentration gradient?
    A) Active transport
    B) Passive transport
    C) Endocytosis
    D) Phagocytosis
    20. Cells use active transport proteins to
    A) obtain molecules they need.
    B) break down molecules.
    C) engulf large particles.
    D) detect the charge of molecules.
    21. A membrane-bound sac used to transport substances into and out of cells is a
    A) pump.
    B) macrophage.
    C) lysosome.
    D) vesicle.
    22. Which invention played the biggest role in the discovery of cells by early scientists?
    A) Magnifying glass
    B) Lens
    C) Eyeglasses
    D) Compound microscope
    23. Specialized structures that work together inside a cell are called
    A) organelles.
    B) prokaryotes.
    C) eukaryotes.
    D) nuclei.
    24. What is the main function of the Golgi apparatus?
    A) Communicate with other cells
    B) Convert solar energy to chemical energy
    C) Process and deliver proteins
    D) Copy genetic material
    25. Which word best describes the structure of the cell membrane?
    A) Layered
    B) Rigid
    C) Impermeable
    D) Nonpolar

    Thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      1.)C
      2.)A
      3.)D
      23.)A

      sorry i skipped a bunch…
      but four answers are better then 0.
      after all u did ask alot of questions, when its supposed to be one getting credit for only one question..
      (:

  47. QUESTION:
    PLEASE HELP! Biology take home test! The professor did not go over any of this stuff!?
    26) The pressure of the plasma membrane pushing against a plant cell wall is due to
    A) the weight of the water from the cell above
    B) Near constant osmosis of water into a plant cell
    C) Near constant osmosis of water out of the pant cell
    D) The low solute concentration inside a plant cell
    27) Experiment: You know that molecules, including proteins, diffuse inside of a cell and you have the technical ability to visualize the movement of single proteins in the cytoplasm. On one occasion you come across a protein that moves in nearly straight lines for tens of microns and does not random walk. It only begins a random walk when you deplete the cell of energy. You have discovered:
    A) A motor protein
    B) A violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
    C) Nothing, all molecules diffuse
    D) An artifact of the high viscosity of cytoplasm
    28) Lactose intolerant people often suffer from diarrhea when they consume milk because of:
    A) Osmosis
    B) Toxicity of milk proteins to them
    C) Milk allergies
    D) None of the above

    29) Dr. Ratfeather lives alone and hates everything (including animals). He administers large dosages of aspirin wrapped in chicken gizzards to local cats which frequent neighborhood porches. However the same cat never appears twice on the Ratfeather porch because of
    a) suicide inhibition
    b) enzyme degradation
    c) feedback inhibition
    d) a and b
    e) everything except b and d
    30) Dr. Ana Heggenfarther, employee of Dreadco Inc., has just invented a nullifier of entropy after being given a special dispensation by the Cosmos to violate the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. One consequence of adding a pinch of this Second Law inhibitor to an ordinary endergonic reaction with no ΔH term could be
    a) ΔG is made even more positive
    b) ΔG is made negative and the impossible happens
    c) the entropy of the Universe is diminished
    d) a and c
    e) b and c

    31) Bacteria were recently discovered deep in South African gold mines and they are living happily outside of the solar biosphere equation. They are warmed by the heat emanating from the mantle and are powered by a redox chemistry that probably utilizes
    a) reduced metals as electron sources
    b) oxidized metals as electron sources
    c) weak light from the Earth’s core to energize electrons
    d) hydrogen gas as an electron sink
    e) all of the above
    32) More than sixty years ago a several fad diets used protonophores to help people lose weight. Some people lost so much weight that they had to be cremated. The targets of these drugs (like DNP) short-circuited mitochondria by
    a) Uncoupling the proton gradient from ATP generation
    b) Uncoupling electron transport from the generation of a proton gradient
    c) Inhibition of glycolysis
    d) Inhibition of ATP synthase
    e) b and d
    33) One potential explanation for the lack of the use of atmospheric oxygen in glycolysis
    is that
    a) the first cells evolved in water and there is very little oxygen in water
    b) glycolysis is probably one of the most ancient metabolic pathways and it takes a long time to evolve enzymes that can bind a gas in their active site.
    c) there wasn’t much free O2 on Earth when glycolysis evolved
    d) aerobic respiration had already consumed most of the atmospheric oxygen by the time glycolysis evolved

    • ANSWER:
      Easy, it’s a take home test. You have time to look up the answers in your textbook. Breathe, read, Google.

  48. QUESTION:
    Can organisms grow in a vacuum?
    I was wondering if plants and animals can grow in a vacuum. For example, can a plant grow on the side of a space ship (disregarding the lack of oxygen necessary for life) or would its cell walls burst?

    • ANSWER:
      No organism can grow in a vacuum. There are some tht cn live in low pressures but not in an actual vacuum. The cell would burst out due to its osmotic pressure. And if there is a cell wall to prevent against that, it has to be very rigid and strong. materials can’t pass through such a wall. So there are no organisms that can live in a vaccum.

      Chlostridium botulinum lives in anaerobic conditions. That means theres no oxygen. It doesn’t mean there are no other gases and therefore its a vacuum

  49. QUESTION:
    Reaction about ENZYME. read more.?
    What can you say about this article about enzyme?

    The study of enzymes has not been simple since enzymes operate on both chemical and biological levels, and science cannot measure or synthesize their biological or life energy.

    Enzymes are responsible in maintaining health and in healing they are our metabolism – the body’s labour force.

    Enzymes are substances that make life possible. They are needed for every chemical reaction that takes place in the human body. No mineral, vitamin or hormone can do any work without enzymes. They are the manual workers that build our bodies from proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

    Researches believe that our enzyme energy has a limit and we must help to maintain them as much as possible in order to have a longer life.

    There are three classes of enzymes: metabolic enzymes, which run our bodies; digestive enzymes, which digest our food; and food enzymes from raw foods, which start food digestion. Our bodies- all organs and tissues-are run by metabolic enzymes.

    These enzyme workers take proteins, fats, carbohydrates, starches and sugars, etc and structure them into healthy bodies, keeping everything working well.

    Digestive enzymes have only three main jobs: digesting protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Proteases are enzymes that digest protein; amylases digest carbohydrate, and lipases digest fat.

    “The Food Enzyme Concept” by Dr. Edward Howell is a different approach of looking at disease. It defends the idea that when ingested, the enzymes in raw food, or supplementary enzymes result in a significant degree of digestion, lowering the drain on the organisms own enzyme potential. Dr. Edward Howell defends that by eating raw food the work of the enzymes is less and the result is a healthy body. By eating raw food less stomach acid is secreted.

    He remarks that most people spend their enzyme bank account and seldom make a deposit. It would be wiser to conserve enzymes and get enzymes reinforcements from the outside, since various experiments have taught us that enzymes are precious commodities.

    He believes that by cutting down on the amount of food we can contribute to a higher enzyme potential, less food means fewer digestive enzymes are required. This keeps death away as well as arming the body against disease.

    Enzymes convert the food we eat into chemical structures that can pass through the cell membranes of the cells lining the digestive tract into the bloodstream.

    He defends that all uncooked foods contain an abundance of food enzymes, which correspond to the nutritional highlights of the food.

    He says that nature has enclosed all raw foods with the correct and balanced amounts of food enzymes either for human consumption or eventual decomposition outside the human body.

    The enzyme diet defended by Dr Edward Howell is defined by a regimen in which food is taken in its raw state, in its unprocessed form, in possession of its full quota of enzymes.

    The digestive enzymes of civilized humans are infinitely stronger and more concentrated in enzyme activity than any other enzyme combination found in nature.

    The organism values its enzymes highly and will make no more than are needed for the job. The body will make less concentrated digestive enzymes, if some of the food is digested by enzymes present in it.

    In humans, the upper portion of the stomach is in fact a food-enzyme stomach. This part secretes no enzymes. In fact, the digestion of the protein, carbohydrate, and fat in raw food begins in the mouth the very moment the plant cell walls are ruptured, releasing the food enzymes during the act of mastification.

    After swallowing, digestion continues in the food-enzyme section of the stomach for one-half to one hour, or until the rising tide of acidity reaches a point where it is inhibited. Then the stomach enzyme pepsin takes over.

    If harmful bacteria are swallowed with the food they may attack it during this time of enforced illness. The salivary enzyme works on the carbohydrate, but the protein and fat must wait.

    Dr. Howell believes that mankind’s change in the diet from mostly uncooked to cooked foods has probably resulted in changes in the structure of our gastrointestinal tract beyond the stomach specifically, the appendix and cecum play an active role in digestion in many herbivorous animals but have atrophied in humans.

    He explains that when there are no food enzymes in the food eaten, to predigest it the pancreas must work to give out more internal enzymes to do the job. Metabolic enzymes do the work.

    The pancreas must send out messages to all parts of the body looking for enzymes it can reprocess into digestive enzymes. When it finds them it has to change metabolic enzymes into digestive enzymes this means extra work and the enlargement of the pancreas.

    This enlargement may not harm the pancreas, but when it confiscates metabolic enzymes it punishes the whole body by depriving it of the mechanics of eve

    • ANSWER:
      “Our enzyme energy has a limit”??? c’mon man, you must be delusional or just an idiot. our bodies make these enzymes–they are proteins coded for by our DNA. While the transcription/translation of these enzymes is regulated, we don’t run out of enzymes, or “enzyme energy”… what the hell is that supposed to mean anyway? learn what an enzyme really is.

  50. QUESTION:
    biology problems!!! please help anyone whos good at biology?
    1. The smallest units of life in all living things are
    Acells. Bcytoplasm.
    Cmitochondria. DGolgi apparatus.
    2. When the volume of a cell increases, its surface area
    Aincreases at a faster rate.
    Bincreases at the same rate.
    Cremains the same.
    Dincreases at a slower rate.
    3. The size to which a cell can grow is limited by its
    Astructure. Blocation.
    Cfunction. Dsurface area.
    4. A cell that can change its shape would be well suited for
    Areceiving and transmitting nerve impulses.
    Bcovering the body surface.
    Cmoving to different tissues through narrow openings.
    DAll of the above
    5. One difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that
    Athe Golgi apparatus is found only in prokaryotes.
    Bnucleic acids are found only in prokaryotes.
    Cmitochondria are found in larger quantities in eukaryotes.
    Dprokaryotes have no nuclear membrane.
    6. Which of the following is an example of a prokaryotic cell?
    Aa virus Ban amoeba
    Ca bacterium Da liver cell
    7. Only eukaryotic cells have
    Aribosomes. BDNA.
    Cmembrane-bound organelles. Dcytoplasm.
    8. Plasma membranes
    Acontain genes.
    Bare part of only a small number of cells.
    Care made of DNA.
    Dare thin coverings that surround cells.
    9. The structure that regulates what enters and leaves the cell is called the
    Anuclear membrane. Bnucleus.
    Ccell wall. Dplasma membrane.
    10. The plasma membrane
    Aencloses the contents of a cell.
    Ballows material to enter and leave the cell.
    Cis selectively permeable.
    DAll of the above
    11. A particularly active cell might contain large numbers of
    Avacuoles. Bchromosomes.
    Cmitochondria. Dwalls.
    12. The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that
    Areceives proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum.
    Blabels the molecules made in the endoplasmic reticulum with tags that specify their destination.
    Creleases molecules in vesicles.
    DAll of the above
    13. In which of the following organelles is a cell’s ATP produced?
    AGolgi apparatus Bmitochondrion
    Cendoplasmic reticulum Dlysosome
    14. Numerous hairlike organelles that protrude from the surface of a cell and are packed in tight rows are called
    Amicrotubules. Bflagella.
    Cactin filaments. Dcilia.
    15. Proteins are made on the
    Anucleus. Bmitochondria.
    Cribosomes. Dplasma membrane.
    16. The double membrane surrounding the nucleus is called the
    Anuclear wall. Bnucleolus.
    Cnucleoplasm. Dnuclear envelope.
    17. cell : plasma membrane ::
    Achromosome : DNA
    Bnucleus : chromosome
    Cnucleus : nuclear envelope
    Dcell : DNA
    18. Refer to the illustration above. The cell uses structure 3
    Ato package proteins so they can be stored by the cell.
    Bto transport material from one part of the cell to another.
    Cas a receptor.
    Dto transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP.
    19. Refer to the illustration above. This cell’s chromosomes are found in
    Astructure 3. Bstructure 1.
    Cstructure 2. Dstructure 5.
    20. The organelles associated with photosynthesis are the
    Achloroplasts. Bmitochondria.
    CGolgi apparatus. Dvacuoles.
    21. The organelles in plant cells that contain a green pigment are the
    Achloroplasts. Bmitochondria.
    Cbilayer lipids. DGolgi apparatus.
    22. Plant cells have a large membrane-bound space in which water, waste products, and nutrients are stored. This place is known as a
    Achloroplast. Bmitochondrion.
    CGolgi apparatus. Dcentral vacuole.
    23. Which of the following pairs contains unrelated items?
    Acell wall–animal cell Beukaryote–amoeba
    Cribosomes–protein Dmitochondria–energy
    24. Plant cells
    Ahave a cell wall instead of a plasma membrane.
    Bdo not contain mitochondria.
    Chave a large central vacuole instead of a Golgi apparatus.
    Dhave chloroplasts and a cell wall.
    25. Which of the following is the correct order of organization of structures in living things, from simplest to most complex?
    Acells, tissues, organ systems, organs
    Borgan systems, organs, tissues, cells
    Ctissues, cells, organs, organ systems
    Dcells, tissues, organs, organ systems

    • ANSWER:
      1. A
      2. D
      3. D
      4. D
      5. C
      6. C
      7. C
      8. D
      9. D
      10. D
      11. C
      12. D
      13. B
      14. D
      15. C
      16. D
      17. C
      18. (no picture)
      19. (no picture)
      20. A
      21. A
      22. D
      23. A
      24. D
      25. D

      I know there are a lot of D answers but they should be all right


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